SMALL CLAIMS PROCESSING AND DUE PROCESS IN CONNECTICUT





Photo Source: P. Allan Smith of MOSS MOUNTAIN FARM



Updated 7/26/2021
CASE AGAINST ME: note, I will get back to this when I can for a more readable format...Meantime, this can be copied and pasted for your own use.

Don't forget to do warm-ups (LOL) 


Here's one for cell phones 
https://youtu.be/Hszg0n3tNcE


UPDATE 10/2/2020 - It is a heck of a lot of work, but I think I figured out how to undo what a hacker helped themself//selves to.  Hopefully these links are restored.  Now, it appears I have to go through every page and do the same thing.  KEEP CALM, BETTER DAYS AHEAD.  

added 14Aug2020: Before you read the Small Claims info from my experiences, I wanted to share my recent effort to get Blogger to fix what they altered: THE ONLY THING LISTED ON MY BLOGGER ACCOUNT NOW, WHICH IS SUPPOSED TO GIVE ME FORMATTING OPTIONS, ETC, IS “REPORT” SO I SELECTED IT AND ANSWERED THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. 8/14/2020 What is URL of the post you want to report? * THIS IS MY BLOGPOST AND I AM THE ONE BEING ABUSED! Which community guideline do you believe it violates? REGULATED GOODS AND SERVICES We remove • Content that promotes or sells regulated goods and services, such as alcohol, gambling, pharmaceuticals and unapproved supplements, tobacco, fireworks, weapons, or health/medical devices. Help us understand more about why you are reporting it * This is MY blogpost and your company has nefariously altered the format WITHOUT SENDING ME ANY COMMUNICATION WHICH MAY REMOTELY JUSTIFY YOUR ACTIONS! THIS IS A SERVICE! YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TO FRAUD PEOPLE'S PROPERTY! How did you feel when you saw this post? YOU ALTERED MY FORMATS, YOU TOOK AWAY THE PICTURES AND THIS VIOLATES ME, THE AUTHOR! INSTEAD OF PROCESSING WHAT I JUST FILLED IN, THEY GIVE ME THIS POPUP AND REQUEST ME TO SAY OKAY WHICH IS BULLSHIT AND I WON’T OKAY IT! Something went wrong and we were unable to submit your response (end) NOTE, I HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH THE CHANGE IN FORMAT - SOMEONE THROUGH THIS BLOGGER COMPANY, OWNED BY GOOGLE, HAS DONE THIS - MOST LIKELY IN A PAY-TO-PLAY SCHEME PAID BY DIRTY POLITICIANS WHO COULD CARE LESS ABOUT THE LAW! THEY TOOK MY BLOG DOWN AND i LET ENOUGG OF THE RIGHT PEOPLE KNOW AND WAS ABLE TO RECOVER IT AFTER 18 MONTHS OF SPORATICALLY TRYING. THEY STOLE MY DOMAIN, WHICH i PAID FOR. THEY USED MITT ROMNEY'S CAPITAL ONE, CLAIMING i PAID FOR IT THROUGH THAT ACCOUNT. YET TO COVER THEIR ASSES, CAPITAL ONE IS GIVING ME EXCELLENT CREDIT NOW. wELL, MY ACCOUNT WILL BE PAID OFF SOON IN A MONTH OR SO AND i WILL NOT USE IT ANYMORE AND TELL THEM TO CLOSE THE ACCOUNT. THERE IS A CAPITAL ONE CASE ON RECORD AGAINST ME EVEN THOUGH THE CASE WAS WITHDRAWN! TARGETED PEOPLE HAVE A HARD LIFE HERE AND NOT TO THEIR FAULT. DON'T GIVE UP. HOLD THEM ACCOUNTABLE. LOOK UP THE RULES OF COURT ONLINE, PRACTICE BOOK CHAPTER 24, I BELIEVE. THERE ARE ALSO STATE LAWS. SEARCH THROUGH GOOGLE SCHOLAR. I AM SORRY FOR THIS FORMATTING, BUT MY HANDS ARE TIED. THEY WON'T EVEN LET ME SEND THEM A MESSAGE - IT WAS REMOVED. IT GOES TO SHOW YOU HOW SPINLELESS THE POLITICIANS ARE - AND THEY HAVE BEEN LIKE THIS TO SOME DEGREE EVERY SINCE THIS COUNTRY SIGNED A US CONSTITUTION, MOST OF THEM WITH THEIR FINGERS CROSSED BEHIND THEIR BACKS. YET THE CORRUPTION AND CRIMES ARE RAMPANT NOW. COPY WHATEVER YOU WANT ON THIS AD-FREE BLOG AND SHARE WHATEVER YOU WANT. MAKE IT YOUR OWN STATMENT. - THIS IS AD-FREE. i CREATED A TABLE OF CONTENTS, ALPHABETIZED YET BLOGGER CHANGED THE FORMAT SO YOU CANNOT ACCESS IT AND TOGGLE WITH LINKS. i HAD THE TOC LINK ON EACH BLOGPOST WHEN MY DOMAIN WAS APPLEOFMYEYE.ORG I HAVE FIXED AS MANY AS i CAN BUT HAD TO WORK ON OTHER MATTERS. AND THEN BLOGGER ALTERED THE FORMATTING AND I DO ALL I CAN TO CHANGE IT, REVERT IT TO ORIGINAL FORMATTING, ETC. NOTHING WORKS. 8/12/2020 Case No. NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OF SYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY : August 4, 2020 DEFENDANT’S TABLE OF SIMILAR CASES IN ACTIVE STATUS DRAFT – NOT SUBMITTED IN COURT AND NEEDS EDITING AS WELL AS MORE CASE INFORMATION Case No. Case Name Amount Claimed Notes Date of Affidavit Answer Date & Date of Writ Answer File Date Note, all cases begin with NNH-CV20; all located at the Superior Court, New Haven, CT Date of Affidavit is SUPPOSED TO BE same as date of Writ; Writ cannot be processed if it is signed more than 30 days prior to submission into court! Sec 24-24 It is illegal for the court to enter appearances of defendants who have not yet appeared! It is a violation of privacy rights to enter personal information on PUBLIC RECORD without the appearance of that party! Sec 24-24 is written poorly, deceptively. It REQUIRES the Writ and Affidavit to be the same date, yet a segment indicates: A SMALL CLAIMS WRIT AND NOTICE OF SUIT SIGNED AND SWORN TO BY THE PLAINTIFF OR REPRESENTATIVE Can be used as both Affidavit and Writ Note! And affidavit is different from a Writ! A Writ is a COURT ORDER. That is in the Black’s Law Dictionary. Politicians don’t care – they play “catch me if you can” too! NO BURDEN OF PROOF IS MET WITH ANY OF THESE CASES! PROVIDING LEDGER INFORMATION OF PAYMENTS AND PURCHASES IS DELIBERATELY AVOIDED! It is UNCONSTITUTIONAL to make a law which allows a creditor to WAIT UP TO SIX YEARS BEFORE COLLECTING; yet only provides one year to the alleged debtor to complain! The intent of the lawmakers is obviously nefarious, self-serving! SMALL CLAIM FORM IF IT IS NOTARIZED AND STAMPED WITH A NOTARY STAMP IT MAY SERVE AS A WRIT And AFFIDAVIT; IN FACT IF THE SMALL CLAIM FORM THEY USE IS REQUIRED TO BE COMPLETED AS SUCH AND DEFECTIVE IF IT ISN’T; THEREFORE ANOTHER REASON AFORESAID CASE HAS NO MERIT BECAUSE A NOTARY IS REQUIRED TO SIGN IT – NOT JUST A WITNESS. The court has allowed two versions of the SMALL CLAIM FORM to be processed; the older version does not require documentation that a letter was sent to the alleged debtor one month prior to the small claim. This requirement for a letter is not substantiated by law. A NOTICE OF SUITE IS REQUIRED. Mike Lawlor has made the Judicial System additionally corrupted; protecting the crooks – and as defendant just typed this, she got a Microsoft popup – another inference of threat since many times when she gets these popups something terrible happens. “The Writ MAY serve as an affidavit if it is NOTARIZE” according to Sec 24-24 of Connecticut Practice Book, which makes no sense since a WRIT is an order of the court; AND since An Affidavit of Debt has to provide BURDEN OF PROOF and is expected to be accompanied by Purchases and Payments History – of course, which they never do since most or all of these cases have no intent to be legitimate on its face. They can just rely on judges to “push them through” REINVENTION OF THE PURPOSE OF NOTARY Attorneys within the court have even claimed they cannot notarize anything, nor can an attorney; that is why they provide a notary in the courthouse; who also serves as the Court Service Center Clerk. Yet the Connecticut laws and rules flipflop on this – seemingly to plug it in when they feel like it. Commissions of a Notary expire and the expiration date and stamp are required when they notarize. The Stillman Law Firm does not notarize any of their small claims and scribble in place of where a notary would sign, with no indication who that person is, what their title is, and whether or not they have any right, usually defining themselves as “Commissioner of the Court” – which by the way, is what a Chief Clerk or Chief Deputy Clerk circle when THEY sign such forms – thereby indicating an OUTSOURCING OF THE COURT and how can an attorney be chief cook and bottle washer? 

There is no SEPARATION OF POWERS. MODUS OPERANDI BY ATTORNEYS, THE COURT 6105395 Midland Credit Mananagement, LLC v Rivera, Edgardo $1,604.69 Schreiber Law LLC A – 10/26/2019 7/20/2020 Uses Pro Hac Vice W - 5/13/2020 No Answer Appearance/Plaintiff No Disposition MIDLAND is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company 

6105396 LVNV Funding, LLC v $ 670.96 Schreiber Law LLC Montes, Frankie 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 5/7/2020 No Answer Appearance/Plaintiff W – 6/2/2020 No Disposition LVNV is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company 

6105397 LVNV Funding, LLC v $ 966.16 Schreiber Law LLC Reyes, Jahira 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 5/6/2020 Judgment Appearance/Plaintiff W – 6/2/2020 Signed by Def LVNV is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company Plaintiff used Diff Juris Number on Mot for Judgment. Active Appearance; admission 6/26/2017 

6105398 MIDLAND Funding, LLC vs $1,339.93 Schreiber Law LLC Mchayle, Pauline 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 1/14/2020 No Answer Appearance W – 6/20/2020 No Disposition MIDLAND is a Sherman Company 

6105399 LVNV Funding, LLC vs $ 563.32 Schreiber Law LLC Rinakama, Ratu 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 4/22/2020 No Answer Appearance W – 5/27/2020 No Disposition LVNV is a 6/29/2020 Sherman Company 

6105400 LVNV Funding, LLC vs $2,731,94 Schreiber Law LLC Witherspoon, Barbara 7/20/2020 Pro Hac Vice A - Def will pay $10/mo Appearance W – 5/17/2020 No Disposition LVNV is a Sherman Company

 6105003 Med-Aid LLC vs $ 194.84 Eric Herman Opin Al-Labban, Suzanne 7/09/2020 Active Appearance A – 5/8/2020 No Answer This case used Small W – 5/8/2020 6/18/2020 Claim Form to Serve as Writ. Filed over 30 days beyond date of Small Claim Form. 

6105004 New Haven Radiology vs $ 100.00 Eric Hermin Opin Raskevicius, Vida 7/09/2020 Active Appearance A – 5/19/2020 No Answer (same as above) W – 5/19/2020 6/18/2020 6105005 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 740.08 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Capital vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Ana R Falero No Answer Comenity Capital is A – 1/27/2020 6/18/2020 A Sherman W – 4/13/2020 - NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE Company And Most likely Second Round Sub is as well 

6105006 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 825.20 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Wilkins Tammy No Answer (Same as 6105005) A – 12/19/2019 6/18/2020 W - 04/30/2020 – NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE 6105007 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 789.67 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Brooks, Alfonzie Judgment Agreed (Same as 6105005) A – 9/20/2020 6/18/2020 W – 5/5/2020 – NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE

6105008 LVNV Funding LLC $ 642.06 Stillman Law Office As Successor in Interest To 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Credit One Bank vs Judgment Agreed Companies are owned Vs Javins, Stacey 6/18/2020 By Sherman Companies A – 4/8/2020 W – 5/5/2020 – NOT NOTARIZED, DEFECTIVE 

6105009 LVNV Funding LLC $ 927.14 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Vs Innacel, Dianna Debt Agreed Companies are owned by A – 4/8/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 

6105011 LVNV Funding LLC $ 1, 194.17 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Capital One, NA Judgment Agreed Company is owned by Vs Langley, Folayan 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies A – 4/8/2020 Pro Hac Vice W – 5/5/2020 

6105012 LVNV Funding LLC $ 811.54 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Synchrony Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Frashuer, Donna Debt Agreed Company is owned by A – 4/8/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 - DEFECTIVE SMALL CLAIM FORM, NOT NOTARIZED 

6105013 LVNV Funding, LLC $ 723.07 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank vs 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Delgado, Avangeline No Answer Company is owned by A – 12/23/2019 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/14/2020 - DEFECTIVE SMALL CLAIM FORM, NOT NOTARIZED 

6105014 LVNV Funding, LLC $2,272.00 Stillman Law Office As Successor In Interest To 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Credit One Bank No Answer Both Companies owned A – 4/8/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 – DEFECTIVE SMALL CLAIM FORM, NOT NOTARIZED 

6105015 LVNV Funding, LLC $ 870.03 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank, NA 7/09/2020 Pro Hac Vice Vs White, Naomi Answer Both Companies owned A – 4/1/2020 6/18/2020 by Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 Judgment Pending 

6105016 Crown Asset Management, LLC $ 857.76 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice Sengsavang, Anita No Answer Both Companies owned A – 4/1/2020 No Disposition by Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 6/18/2020 

6105017 LVNV Funding LLC $1,160.96 Stillman Law Office Assignee of CitiBank, NA vs 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice Westley, Kenneth no Answer LVNV owned by A – 3/26/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies W – 5/5/2020 No Disposition 

6105018 Second Round Sub, LLC $ 965.95 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Comenity Bank vs 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – NONE! No Answer Both probably owned by W – 5/5/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies 

6105019 LVNV Funding LLC $ 619.12 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank, NA 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A - 3/31/2020 Def Disputes Both owned by W – 5/5/2020 6/18/2020 Sherman Companies 

6105020 LVNV Funding LLC $ 840.63 Stillman Law Office Assignee of Credit One Bank NA 7/9/2020 Pro Hac Vice A – 3/31/2020 Def Ret Answer - Owned by Sherman W – 5/5/2020 NOT SIGNED Companies 6/18/2020 ….to be continued This is all I can do now, Blogger has messed with my blog so they can DISRUPT MY EFFORTS TO SHARE INFORMATION THAT REFLECTS ABSOLUTE VIOLATION OF RIGHTS, ABUSE OF POWER, CAREER CRIMINAS, ETC! COPY AND PASTE THIS IF YOU CAN - IT MAY AUTOMATICALLY FORMAT ################################################################################################################################## 

CASE AGAINST ME: note, I will get back to this when I can for a more readable format...Meantime, this can be copied and pasted for your own use.
    

Case No. NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OF SYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY : JUNE 29, 2020 July 13,2020 AMENDEND TIMELINE BY DEFENDANT FIRST SECTION – EXCEPTION Page 1-2 5/5/2020 SMALL CLAIMS WRIT, NOT PROCESSED BY COURT (NO STAMP, NO DATE, NO DOCKET NUMBER) Rules of Court indicate it has to be filed within 30 days of signing. a. The Writ is supposed to be first presented to the court WITHIN 30 DAYS OF SIGNING IT. – Neither were done. b. Certification of Service is to be RETURNED to the court AND BE MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH Rules of Certification of Service – this was not done; TO INCLUDE MAIL DELIVERY. Return address on Priority Envelope was NOT THE PLAINTIFF; the Priority Mail envelope (PB 24-10) had no tracking information when the Defendant checked it the same day it was taken out of her mailbox at her residency. Printout should be in this Appendix, paginated. Defendant will be providing an electronic version of all documents for the court to use, particularly searching on Word documents such as this one. Defendant is unable to prepare an electronic version this day, 7/13/2020, because her external drive for CD roms is once again stolen out of her apartment. This is the second time which this has occurred. Amazon removed these two purchases from her Buying History and therefore Defendant would not make another purchase from Amazon due to the altering of her account information for obvious nefarious purposes. c. The Court should not have accepted the Small Claim due to a and b d. There was no COMPLAINT, NO NOTICE OF SUIT, served on the Defendant (PB 24-10) and there was no electronic delivery confirmation – there was only a typed document by the attorney which the court had no right to accept on a document which had no cited rule or law which gave Plaintiff any legal right to submit, particularly not even signed to certify who the preparer was. The clerk is required to document a VALIDATED Return of Service. The court failed to do its job, causing the defendant to have to proceed with her defense, which has caused undue stress and hardship. e. ANSWER DATE was unfairly set at the LEAST amount of time, (PB 24-12) which greatly impaired defendant’s efforts to timely submit her Answer as well as Counter Claim with Fee Waiver – yet these were accomplished, noting to the court that it would be necessary to amend documents which would be presented forthwith. f. Aforesaid Appendix is not consistent with the Defendant’s intent to place all documents in chronological order WITH a Timeline reflecting each page chronologically as well. This is primarily due to CYBER CRIME and unfair demand by the court to cause the defendant to prepare Answer and Special Defenses as well as Counterclaim two weeks from the date she was notified that a Small Claim was entered into court, despite the fact the Small Claim papers by the Plaintiff were ILLEGITAMATE. g. The Court is REQUIRED to assign this case as a SMALL CLAIM DOCKET, yet without any explanation, placed this case in CIVIL COURT. DEFENDANT RETAINS THE RIGHT TO THEREFORE INCREASE AMOUNT OF COUNTERCLAIM SUIT. Page 3 MISSING Page 4-5 6/12/2020 Defendant Responded to the Priority Mail “Documents with No Case Number. Small Claims can be filed electronically. I’ll be happy to counter sue if you’re so stupid to process. These documents show malice and forethought.” Pages 6-7 MISSING Page 8 -9 6/18/2020 Answer Form Completed by The Court, sent to Defendant JD-CV-40A1 Defendant refused to sign this and claimed the Court had no legal right to prepare such document. In fact, the document was most likely prepared by the Plaintiff, who failed to even enter its appearance, most likely to stay secret since its status was “F” which is pro hac vice and apparently the Court allows it to be a “blank check” instead. Defendant prepared an Answer Form used in CIVIL COURT due to the Small Claims Court withholding this form for defendants to prepare. Another ILLEGAL ACTION BY THE COURT; most likely manipulated by Attorney Michael Lawlor, who former Governor Malloy created a new position AND department for since he lost re-election as state representative for East Haven, and no longer taught at the University of New Haven. The department was named “Extra-Judicial” which defendant claims should have been reason to impeach Gov Malloy – yet the politicians in this state failed to act on this and many other illegalities – including the PLANNED FAKE SANDY HOOK SHOOTING WHICH CAUSED PEOPLE TO DIE OF HEART ATTACKS, STROKES BECAUSE THEY BELIEVED IT. Defendant’s Prepared and Signed Form, JD-CV-108, was presented to the court timely, on the Answer Date, along with attaching the Affidavit of which defendant used to respond to since the plaintiff failed to serve her a complaint. Defendant asked the court by phone if they received it as well as the other documentation, and the court refused to respond. Due to the fact that the saved document did not save (Cyber Crime) Defendant prepared a SECOND signed Answer to submit today, July 13, 2020, should the court deny it was delivered by the Defendant. Original is presented separately. yet a copy is also presented, and paginated as 9a-9c Page 10-13 7/9/2020 Defendant attempted to print the DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES FORM, JD-CV-401A, which was taken out of the Court System for public access. Pages 14-25 7/9/2020 Defendant made searches on Plaintiff to determine its legitimacy of appearance; or, as in this case, lack thereof. Page 26-29 6/10/2020 Priority Mail Envelope used by Plaintiff and various searched information made by Defendant, to include tracking; or as in this case, lack thereof. Page 30-31 6/10/2020 Defendant searched for Small Claims cases using her name as well as the return address on Priority Mail: Kellermen Investigation, located in the Chicago, IL area. Pages 32-44 6/23/2020 Defendant searched for information on REAL relationship with Synchrony Bank (which was founded on or BEFORE 2006, having made a large contract with PayPal) and GE Money; particularly since the Plaintiff described the relationship as a “spinoff” of GE Money, which has no legal or business value. Defendant was informed by GE Money that they were selling all active and inactive accounts to Synchrony Bank. During this time of transitioning, defendant experienced much difficulty with her account management by GE Money. Defendant discovered the same person who was moved to take charge of these accounts was transferred over to Synchrony Bank and given a CEO position. Management of her Care Credit account proved to be nefarious quickly; Defendant had a ZERO balance and instructed GE Money AND later Synchrony to close the card. Rather, they continued to keep it in the books and claimed the defendant owed over $1,000 which was FRAUDULENT, as already presented to the court on July 9, 2020. SECOND SECTION 1. 5/26/2009 Case Lookup includes the following: (a) Capital One Bank v Bradley SCC-134960 Capital One Promptly Withdrew it yet the court continued to resurface the case for at least ten years. Page 45 (b) Spruill V Bradley SCC-227520 This case was a fraudulent means by the landlord to steal more money from the defendant-tenant. The Small Claims Court had no legal right to allow it in court based on the fact the landlord was attempting to illicitly evict her and she was paying rent into court. Despite claiming this in the Special Answer and Defenses, the Small Claims Court got their kicks leaving it active. The landlord did not even show up for the hearing, yet several bullying city officials did as if it was a housing hearing. This was clearly on back rent only and there was no back rent. Defendant was lawfully paying rent into court and defending herself on a unlawful attempt to evict her, yet the housing court continued it for a year to devise tricks to evict her. They did not even follow their own Rules of Court, as a means to dodge the Emergency Motion made into the US Supreme Court. A marshal smashed in her door with a sledge hammer rather than wait for police. Defendant’s ADT alarm went off and the marshal yelled at her to turn it off. She refused and the marshal walked over and used a code, obviously proving he was the one who was illegally entering her apartment, including killing cats in her clean apartment. Page 45 (c) Bradley v Barber – this attorney was retained and he did nothing, stealing her $2,300. She demanded it back and he refused. She filed a case against him and it took a very long time just to have a hearing. In summary, there was no administration of the law. The judge refused to look at documents saying it was none of her business. The judge did not care to hold a legitimate hearing. Later, when Attorney Barber filed bankruptcy, the $2300 was listed as a debt. Defendant was listed as a creditor. Again, the crooked judge of the Bankruptcy Court was only serving her own wants by removing defendant as a creditor just to help out Attorney Barber who should have been arrested for embezzlement. Page 45 (d) Bradley v. Public Storage. Defendant paid her rent every month and one month they decided to “lose” her money order and deny ever getting it in the mail, despite she mailed it the same way. This is about being a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL by the corrupted beurocracy which should not be allowed to have any power in this society since they are career criminals. Public Storage began charging her late fees, in excess of $200 even though she proved to them she purchased the money order, the money came out of her account, and they had no right to threaten and charge her when she continued to pay her rent and assured them after USPS does their investigation, which takes 60 days, they would reissue a check. Public Storage then stole all of her possessions out of her unit and would not give them back to her. Defendant was attending Southern Connecticut State University and did not have time to take a bus to call police, which most likely wouldn’t help since the Police Chief’s daughter once broad sided her vehicle and she sued yet they attorneys she retained were frauding records and doing other things to sabatoge her rights and she removed them from the case and settled on her own. Defendant settled out of court after her father was killed by medical staff, through the w ants of a deceitful brother who enjoyed making him die. Saying it was a religious experience. The above is relayed to emphasize that the defendant has been a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL for many years by a society which is far from being free – it has turned into a socialist society which evades from laws as a matter of practice, rather than administer them. Page 45 2. 3/24/2014 Synchrony Bank/Care Credit Mismanagement – attempt to charge defendant $1,000 which was never serviced/invalid. Upon selling the PAID OFF ACCOUNT to True Accord, they tried to collect on it. THE CARD WAS PAID OFF IN 2012 AND DEFENDANT NO LONGER USED IT SINCE GE MONEY SOLD IT TO SYNCHRONY BANK. Page 46-48 2a. 6/ /2014 This may have been deleted by a hacker – unsure at this time 3. 9/25/2014 Letter from Resurgent Capital Services, PO Box 1410, Troy, MI 48099-1410. Claiming Defendant had a Citibank (South Dakota) card with balance of 818.30 DEFENDANT NEVER HAD A CITIBANK CARD AND DEFENDANT HAS NEVER HAD ANY INTERRACTION WITH CITIBANK. Copy of Defendant’s note on the letter: How many accounts are mishandled like this? I never had a Citibank Account? Additionally, these are FALSE account receivables to include in tax reporting…Address: PO Box 19034, Greenville, SC 29602-9034. Resurgent claims they along with EIGHT other companies have a right to her personal information on FRAUDULENT BILLING PRACTICES which all fall under “Sherman Companies” Page 48a Note: 6/23/2020 Defendant received no emails from Resurgent based on her search. (one page) Defendant discovered the Following on Resurgent Capital Services, another fraudulent company attached to the fake account. 9 Results Found Resurgent Capital Services L.P. Greenville, SC Resurgent is here to help with flexible payment options and educational ... 1-888-665-0374; P.O. Box 10497 Greenville, SC 29603; Main Office NMLS ID#2301. NO PHYSICAL ADDRESS! https://www.resurgent.com/who-we-are https://www.resurgent.com/contact-us BBB search: 55 Beattie Pl Ste 110 Greenville, SC 29601-5115 https://www.resurgent.com (864) 248-8700 BUSINESS SEARCH, STATE OF SC: BUSINESS DISSOLVED! https://businessfilings.sc.gov/BusinessFiling/Entity/Search Appendix E Officers: Timothy M. Grant , Scott Kester and 4 others Resurgent Capital, LLC San Francisco, CA Officers: Jeremy David Hinman , Eric Bassman Resurgent Capital Services L.P. Cincinnati, OH Officers: Judith Lynn Resurgent Capital Service Saint Paul, MN Officers: Jessica Hagemann Resurgent Capital Services L.P. Resurgent Capital Services Greenville, SC Resurgent Capital, LLC Maple Plain, MN Resurgent Capital Services Limited Partnership Greenville, SC Officers: Alegis Group LLC Resurgent Capital Services Pr LLC Greenville, SC Officers: Resurgent Capital Services L.P. RESURGENT CAPITAL SERVICES L.P. Active Cincinnati, OH (888)665-0374 Resurgent Capital Services, LP -> Judith Lyn -> Sherman Financial Group 8600 Governors Hill Dr, Cincinnati. OH 45249 Printed list of 4 pages from following source: Business Entities Online 4. 9/25/2014 Defendant made a search on Sherman Companies on 7/5/2020. The Credit Infocenter reports that Sherman Companies include the following: Fieldstone Assit Management, LLC Granite Asset Management, LLC Limestone Asset Management, LLC LVNY Funding, LLC PYOD, LLC Resurgent Capital Services, LP Resurgent Capital Services, PR, LLC SFG REO, LLC Sherman Acquisition II Limited Partnership Sherman Acquisition, LLC Serhma Acquisition Limited Partnership Serhman Acquisition TA LP Tradd Street, LLC AND, according to a court order, Case No. DFR-FY2012-012, the following are Sherman Companies LVNV Funding, LLC Resurgent Capital Services Limited Partnership, aka Resurgent Capital Services, LP, f/k/a Alegis Group, LP Sherman Originator LLC Alegis Group, LLC Sherman Financial Group, LLC Sherman Capital Markets, LLC Sherman Acquisition LTD Partnership, aka Sherman Acquisition, LP Sherman Acquisition, LLC Sherman Acquisition H Limited Partnership, aka Sherman Acquisition II LP Sherman Acquisition II General Partnership LLC Sherman Capital, LLC Meeting Street Partners II Inc Benjamin W. Navarro Leslie G. Gutierrez Scott E. Silver Kevin P. Branigan Robert A. Roderick 5. Defendant printed the first 5 pages of a 40-page court document – which is enough to validate that this company is involved with nefarious activity and obviously are protected by the Elite Secret Society Members who break law after law and claim they own the USA. 9 pages total. Full document can be obtained by searching the court case number on Google. Pages 49-53 6. List of Sherman Companies from the following Source: Credit Info Center Pages 54-59 Page 60 MISSING . Page 60 MISSING 7. 3/1/2019 Email from support@trueaccord.com “Anne, Please set up a payment arrangement” “LVNV funding LLC (owner of your Synchrony Bank (serviced Amazon.com Store Card balance) would like to prevent legal review on your past due amount. 2 pages Claiming due: $875.90 THERE WAS NO PAST-DUE AMOUNT. THIS IS EXTORTION! 3/1/2019 Letter from Synchrony Bank, PO Box 965064, Orlando, FL 32896-5064. Re: Account No. ending in 3809 (which has no value to the defendant, particularly since most or all of financial records have been stolen out of her apartment, to verify) Acct Bal at time of sale: $1083.08 (= FRAUD, since no acknowledgement of “time of sale” and since Synchrony purchased the GE Money accounts, this letter is deliberately deceptive. DEFENDANT STOPPED USING CARE CREDIT AFTER A DENTAL CLINIC CHARGED $1,000 AND CAME UP WITH A CROOKED PAYMENT PLAN THAT WAS WELL BEYOND WHAT SHE COULD AFFORD. DEFENDANT TOLD THEM THAT THEY CANNOT CHARGE CARE CREDIT IN ANTICIPATION OF SERVICE, THEY HAVE TO CHARGE THEM WHEN THE SERVICE IS PERFORMED. CARE CREDIT INFORMED THE DEFENDANT THAT THIS CHARGE WAS REVERSED. DEFENDANT’S CREDIT LIMIT WAS $1,000 YET DID NOT WANT TO USE THIS CARD AGAIN (2012) AND BELIEVED SHE WAS CHEATED BY NOT BEING ABLE TO GET DENTAL INSURANCE. AS OBAMACARE WAS FAILING, ONE COMPANY CAME FORWARD OFFERING DENTAL/EYE PLAN WHICH DEFENDANT OBTAINED IN 2014. AFTER ONE YEAR THEY SAID THEY WOULD PAY FOR A LARGE PORTION OF CROWNWORK, YET THEY DID NOT AND THOUGH SHE HAD IT FOR TWO+ YEARS, THEY ONLY SENT HER ONE CHECK FOR $51.00 AND GAVE ONE PAYMENT OF $51.00 TO A DENTIST WHO FAILED TO APPLY IT AS A CREDIT AND ALTERED CHARGES TO ABSORB THE CHECK. AS IT TURNED OUT, THIS DENTAL CLINIC WAS PART OF THE DR. DENTAL CLINIC AND DEFENDANT STOPPED THEIR SERVICES UPON DISCOVERING THAT DENTAL INSURANCE PLANS WERE MADE READILY AVAILABLE THROUGH INSURANCE COMPANIES AND SHE RETAINED REAL INSURANCE AGAIN) The letter by Synchrony Bank is FRAUD. MISSING 8. 7/9/2020 Email activity of Defendant’s email account. This is to validate tactics used to abuse, target Defendant: Contaminated water, False Alarm, ‘Surrender To The Landlord’ which landlord defines as a waiver (Defendant refused to sign it, claiming it was illegal) Additionally, defendant’s apartment was infested with fleas – either hand-carried in or pumped through the ventilation of the HVAC unit. This has been done before. Defendant had to continuously wash her cupboards and use rubbing alcohol in a spray bottle. Additionally, she doubled the filter she placed in the vents, to make it harder for them to pump in fleas, mites, fuitflies, etc. Page 75 9. 11/19/2016 Validation of Synchrony Bank managing the previous GE Money Account. “Frequent Difficulty Paying Online” as noted on document. This was a typical cyber crime, interfering with payment on line. Defendant began sending them autopay checks. Page 76 10. Unk date Written on Document: “They refer to different addresses for contact info! Phone numbers are usually fake – constant ads on phone numbers.” Defendant called numbers and got phone commercials or automated system with no solution. 11. 3/1/2019 Email from True Accord. “LVNV Funding, LLC (owner of your Synchrony Bank (serviced by Amazon.com Store Card) balance) would like to prevent legal review on your past due account, so they gave us the opportunity to assist you in a resolution. WHILE YOUR ACCOUNT IS STILL WITH US, we’d like to work with you to resolve your past due balance. Otherwise, LVNV Funding LLC (owner of your Synchrony Bank (serviced by Amazon.com Store Card) balance) will send your account to an attorney for legal review as their next step. …Unless you notify us within 30 days after receiving this notice that your dispute the validity of this debt or any portion thereof, we will assume the debt is valid….Defendant responded 3/2/2019 claiming “I paid what I owed in full three years ago! And you send me this now? Do you know what FRAUD means? That’s what you are doing! I don’t have an account with you!” At no point did they fulfill BURDEN OF PROOF. Pages 78-79 12. 3/2/2020 Defendant’s response to True Accord “I paid in full three years ago!...Do you know what FRAUD means?...You claim to be Synchrony but use support@trueaccord.com as your email reply WHEN I select reply!” Page 80 3/5/2019 Notice from FINANCIAL RECOVERY SERVICES, INC., PO Box 385908, Minneapolis, MN 55438-5908; which states: “current creditor: LVNV Funding, LLC, Acct No. ending in 3809; date of last payment: 7/10/2017. Total balance $1083.08. Note, they also use the following as a return address: Dept 813 (no business name), PO Box 4115, Concord, CA 94524. “Please be advised that LVNV FUNDING LLC the current creditor-debt purchaser has purchased the account referenced above AND IT HAS BEEN ASSIGNED TO OUR OFFICE…” Bill Collector hires a bill collector to do what? Hire another bill collector? THEY DO NOT HAVE ANY JUSTIFICATION OF THE BALANCE! THE ACCOUNT WAS PAID IN FULL! 3/1/2019 Email from TRUE ACCORD, which claimed to have taken the Synchrony Bank Account which defendant had paid off after she refused the card anymore due to FRAUDULENT BILLING PRACTICES by Synchrony Bank. Stating, “We have logged your dispute for you, and your account will be RETURNED to LVNV Funding, LLC” Preparer of email was “Jon V” Appendix E 13. 3/1/2019 True Accord Email (NOT LVNV!) “This is a follow-up to your previous request Contact: Daryl Washington Pages 81-8312. 14. 3/10/2020 #112436 Re: Thank you Anne. Defendant was not thanking them, nor did she do anything for them to thank her, unless they were finally confirming they obtained her letter itemizing all purchases and payments. Defendant demanded THEY FULFILL BURDEN OF PROOF, PARTICULARLY SINCE THEY RECEIVED HER ITEMIZED LETTER OF PURCHASES AND PAYMENTS. NOTE, AT THIS POINT, LVNV CLAIMED THEY PURCHASED THE ACCOUNT FROM TRUE ACCORD, EFFECTIVE FEBRUARY 2020. Pages 84-85 15. 4/8/2020 “Affidavit of Facts” is a one-page document Prepared by “Pamela Johnson” with no address or title; Notarized by Arlah Klugh, Commission Expires 2-12-2021, State of South Carolina. Claiming Synchrony Bank of PO Box 105972, Atlanta, GA 30348; Sold the account to Sherman Originator, LLC of PO Box 10486, Greenville, SC 29603 . This was included with the Small Claims Documents issued to the Small Claim Court, which Defendant printed on 6/24/2020 after receiving only a prepared “Answer and Special Defense” form in the mail. The Affidavit has been responded to in Answer And Special Defenses. NOTE, THIS DOCUMENT IS DEFECTIVE DUE THE TO FACT THAT IT WAS NOT PREPARED BY OR SIGNED BY EITHER PARTY TO THE CASE FOR AUTHENTICITY. Defendant still responded to it on the pretense that the form is FRAUDULENT. Page 85a, 191 (copy) NOTE: This document is what Defendant used to create Answer and Special Defenses, coupled with COUNTERCLAIM 16. 4/29/2020 Fraudulent Collections on Fingerhut account, which was paid in full, yet LVNV purchased the account to pursue collections; refusing to satisfy BURDEN OF PROOF. Various dates. Pages 86 – 95, 202-215 17. 6/8/2020 Defendant submitted detailed Petition: Remove Trump Now. Printed draft added to this Appendix. Pages 96-104 18. REMINDER: PLAINTIFF ADMITS PRIORITY MAIL WAS PLACED IN DEFENDANT’S MAILBOX THE FOLLOWING DAY, June 9, 2020. Defendant claimed in Court documents already submitted that this was REVENGE FOR TRUMP, the Satanic Underground. 19. Also, on June 9, the landlord of the plaintiff, located at 360 State Street, New Haven, CT placed a blank envelope in her door with an illegitimate document titled “Tenant Release, Waiver, and Assumption of Risk Agreement”. The document was not paginated. No laws were cited. AND since it was an AGREEMENT, no signature by the landlord. Those were just a few of the elements wrong with the document. Pages 105-108 20. 6/10/2020 PRIORITY MAIL FROM UNKNOWN COMPANY. Flat Rate. USPS Tracking # 9405 5098 9864 2965 8588 39 Inside were documents which had several companies referenced. All claiming the defendant owed THEM $875.90, claiming that was an Amazon Card balance she never paid. Defendant was of the immediate belief that this was a bullying tactic by President Trump due to the Petition she submitted to Congress, Senate, and his Executive Office. The documents had no legal value. They were not stamped in to court. Defendant checked for tracking information. There was none. Defendant checked to see if the Plaintiff was registered in Connecticut. The plaintiff was not registered. The plaintiff presumed the Small Claims Office would deny the small claim lawsuit due to insufficiency of service BEFORE the plaintiff filed into court. There was no Summons. Only the inept Small Claims Document which had no legal value, including attachments which also had no legal value. Page 26; Generally Pages 1-44 5/5/2020 Signed Small Claim Form with NO LEGAL POWER since it was not filed timely into Small Claims Court, which they can knowingly e-file, and they DID efile on 6/18/2020. Their login account most likely is longstanding despite the fact they are categorized as a pro hac vice attorney. 6/11/2020 Defendant’s letter sent to sender of Priority Mail and LVNV Funding, Greenville, SC in response to Priority Mailing. Pages 234 and 235 6/10/2020 “Page 5” stating “This was originally an account with WebBank (Fingerhut) account number ending in 5885….LVNV Funding Account number ending in 2780” 6/10/2020 NOTICE REGARDING FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT SUBSEQUENT COMMUNICATIONS, DATED 4/23/2020 – yet this was enclosed in the Priority Mail Envelope that was nefariously placed in defendant’s mailbox on late evening of June 9 or daytime of June 10, 2020. This 3-line statement references USC Title 15, Section 1692 only. This reflects a FEDERAL CASE, not STATE. Plaintiff Notice Regarding Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Subsequent Communications. Included with Small Claim in Priority Mail. Brief Statement that Plaintiff is attempting to collect a debt – which defendant claims is fraudulent and unsubstantiated to the court. Dated 4/23/2020. Signed by Christopher T Moylan, Esq, Matthew R Bardos, Esq, using Juris No. 438732 of Stillman Law Office, LLC 30057 Orchard Lake Rd, Suite 200, Dept 100, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48334 203-942-2301 with an email address of connecticut@stillmanlaw.com Page 116 Defendant claims these are attorneys who conduct themselves haphazardly with an “anything goes” approach regarding court matters – reflect the practice of Secret Societies and Cults. Page 116 6/10/2020 Undated “We Can’t Accept Your Payment” included in Priority Mail Company: True Accord, 16011 College Blvd, Suite 130, Lenexa, KS 66219. Business Search on this company resulted in this information: Registered Office: 534 S Kansas Ave Ste 1000, TOPEKA, KS 66603 Page 114 Note, Search was made on True Accord to determine if it was registered as a business entity. Page 115. Forfeiture date: 7/15/2020 “We Can no longer accept online payment” was searched in defendant’s email to prove this was not taken from her email – Page 112 6/10/2020 Two page document printed from case information, not received in the mail. but included with scanned court documents after plaintiff filed 6/18/2020. . This is typed printout on a Small Claim Form, claiming “Delivery Information”, which, if sent Priority Mail, would be available by printing it from USPS data base for AUTHENTICITY. Document claims that the Priority Mail was sent from Illinois on June 4 at 2:04 pm, several intermittent arrivals, including destination time of 12:46 pm at Defendant’s Residence on June 9, 2020. There is no signature on this, yet on 6/15/2020 an attorney with the Stillman Law Office, Christopher Moylan, signed a defective Certification of Mailing claiming “Priority Mail Information Attached” with no signature on the attached to satisfy Certification of Mailing Requirements. Additionally, it failed to indicate it was served on the Defendant, which is also a requirement. Page 113 6/10/2020 “Your Account has a New Owner: LVNV Funding” this undated document was placed with other documents in the Priority Mail Envelope from Kellerman Investigators, in the Chicago, IL area Page 109 6/10/2020 Declaration of Account Transfer – From Sherman Originator to LVNV – both are Sherman Companies. Details only reflect nefarious activity. Page 146 6/23/2020 Exhibit A by Plaintiff – Supposed Transaction from Synchrony to unk company. Transfer Batch N/A. This info has no authenticity or coherence. 6/23.2020 Page 3 of 9 by Plaintiff – BLANK PAGE. ONE OF TWO “WILD CARDS” WHICH THE PLAINTIFF USES, showing intent to fraud records at some point. The Small Claims Court should have removed them. 6/23/2020 Page 4 of 9 by Plaintiff – Defective bill which is not even legible without use of magnifying glass. $580.32 is alleged balance for the following date: 8/10/2017. This document has no relevance. Page 149 6/23/2020 Bill of Sale February 2019 – 1 1/2 years AFTER defective bill above. Defendant claims this document also is defective, even fraudulent. Synchrony Bank was never formerly known as GE Capital! Synchrony Bank was established on or before 2006. This is one of the main reasons the document is fraudulent. 6/23/2020 Unreadable bill dated 1/18/2018 – needing magnifying glasses to read. Defined as ‘CHARGE OFF ACCOUNT” New Balance is 0; yet claiming Min Due as $400.00. Defendant claims this document is defective, fraudulent. 6/23/2020 Plaintiff’s Statement of Service/Certification of Service – fails to comply with the Rules of Court as well as Law. This was never served on Defendant. Other notations by the Defendant have been made on this and other documents submitted into court. Pages 152-154 Plaintiff’s Exhibit 5 of 9: Again, printed so small it is not legible without a magnifying glass. 2017 BALANCE DUE as 561.48. Defendant claims this defective bill is not only without merit; but has no relevance on this case. LVNV showed no history from year to year, let alone month to month – and cannot extract a bill from 2017 and claim it is valid and prosecutable. THERE IS NO PROOF OF BURDEN. NO STATEMENT IS PROOF OF BURDEN. HISTORY OF PAYMENTS AND PURCHASES IS PROOF OF BURDEN YET THEY REPEATEDLY REFUSE TO PROVIDE THAT DESPITE BEING REQUESTED. 6/23/2020 Dept of Def Status Report on Proof of Service Member/non-Service Member With insufficient Military Service Affidavit since this is to be prepared by the Defendant and only at the Defendant’s desire to use it Pages 156-159, 266-269 7/9/2020 Search on Michigan Public Records Center for Stillman Law Firm, which would not print as the name being searched. Member Directory results in attorney names which are not located on the documentation. Yet this is the law firm which has pro hac vice status and has entered this Law firm’s juris number on the Small Claims Writ. Pages 15-16 Exhibit 8 of 9 : Blank page. Defendant claims this is another “wild card” used by the plaintiff and can only presume it will be used to alter records in the future at some point. Page 160 Amazon Bill, again not legible without magnifying glass. Bill for year 2018. CHARGE OFF. INTEREST ADDED: $339.63 YET PREV BALANCE IS $840.90; CREDITS ARE $875.90; PAYMENT DUE DATE 1/18/2018. INSTRUCTIONS TO DEFENDANT – NOTICE TO PERSON BEING SUED. This notice had to be printed by the Defendant through the Law Library system. This was nothing sent to the defendant by the Plaintiff. There is no signature by the plaintiff on it as part of validation. No referenced docket number. Defendant printed it as part of the numerous attempts to unravel this very corrupted action against her. Pages 163-164; 271-272 (copy) Defendant began receiving emails from GE Money in 2011 as an Amazon Customer. According to email search, Synchrony began communicating as Defendant’s new card holder – NOT COLLECTION AGENCY – in 2016, possibly 2015 since Google fails to print all 25 emails on each page. Page 164 – 175 email search Printed Court Case Information on aforesaid case – defendant printed it due to every time she opened it, it was marked “Information Updated” with a different date. This information update is 7/9/2020 yet there is no way to detect what they did. Page 237-238 Cases that belong to Small Claims begin with SCC Page 239 Defendant made case search on 6/10/2020 after looking at the Priority Mail and discovered no case had been entered. Pages 240-241 Defendant’s comments on a few applicable laws on Collections – Pages 242 – 250; 252 also refer to SECTION 3, LAWS, which is being provided to the court and plaintiff as a separate scanned document asap to ensure they have it. Example of Small Claims Writ from 2017 – plaintiff-attorney references THEY have a six-year Statute of Limitations. Page 251 Defendant’s search on True Accord in her email. Results 1-25 of MANY Earliest being May 28 (Google cut of year, so defendant is unsure of year and has no time to validate it before taking this Amended Timeline to the courthouse today, July 13, 2020) Pages 253-254 DEFENDANT’S CREDIT IS RUINED BY FALSE REPORTING – ANOTHER TACTIC THEY HARM HER WITH AS A TARGETED CITIZEN Pages 255-256 21. 6/11/2020 Tenant Release Waiver and Assumption Risk, submitted by defendant’s apartment management. “Due to COVID” Note, this copy had 360 State Street, Inc address on it yet they are not the landlord of record. Defendant refused to sign it claiming it was illegal and “We are not in Marshal Law” Thereafter, the landlord EMAILED this same TENANT SURRENDER TO LANDLORD form using “360 State” as heading. Defendant emailed the landlord management (who are paid by Bozzutto, Inc, the builders of this apartment building) back saying, “No, I am not signing. It is not legal.” Other portion of that email of June 26 was altered by a hacker. Landlord never responded to the email added: “So what’s going on with the HVAC unit? It sounds like it’s going to blow up” – this email was sent twice, attaching a 15-sec recording of the sound, with no response. Pages 106-108, 110-111, 117-122 22. 6/17/2020 Defendant made discoveries on Joe Biden as she was working on the paperwork of this Small Claim as she was researching a number of companies referenced, one of which uses a Delaware address. Defendant relayed in social media that it is obvious to her that Joe Biden had his family murdered as a satanic ritual, a deal he made with the Satanic Underground (identified by Dr. Ted Gunderson through public speaking videos on YouTube, yet Dr. Gunderson died from arsenic poisoning at the apartment which CIA man John DeCamp referred him to in Nevada) 23. 6/22/2020 Petition To Forego Election 2020. Defendant submitted this Petition stipulating that Trump is removed and replaced by Mike Pence, current Vice President. Page 123-136 24. 6/25/2020 Landlord sent emails to all tenants claiming the false alarm was caused by someone in the market, that they didn’t realize it went off in the whole building. No mention of anyone just calling 911 claiming it was a false alarm. Defendant emails reflecting this activity: false alarm, contaminated water, et. Pages 137-144 25. 5/9/2020 “True Accord Account Ending 10027- and LVNV account ending in 2780” – which they also claim is the Amazon Account - Email demanding the Defendant pay a nefarious balance with Fingerhut/WebBank account ending in 5885. Peter Martin, sender of email. Page 145 26. Edited Remove Trump Now Petition. 9June2020 Pages 177 to 180 27. Defendant sent email on Motion To Forego Election, also noted experiences as a TARGETED CITIZEN because of the petitions she submitted. Page 181 28. Defendant made searches on information on alleged Plaintiff Pages 182-184 29. Defendant Searched “Synchrony Bank” in her email and printed First and last pages, and a few inbetween. Google pulled up GE Capital for 2014/not Synchrony. Page 187 shows Synchrony most likely took over as card holder in 2015. Pages 186 to 190 30. WHO IS PAMELA JOHNSON? DEFENDANT MADE SEARCHES. Apparently Ms. Johnson was the daughter or x-wife of the owner of Sherman Companies. And married the Marketing Manager, George R. Johnson. https://www.thepamsherman.com/clients - SHE IS CLAIMING TO BE AN OUTLAW IN HER TRAINING. YET THOSE WORDS DO NOT PRINT. DEFENDANT WROTE THEM IN https://www.thepamsherman.com/clients @truthstreamnews has a good video on "100 Secret Societies"; and don't forget, some like #YPO are right #InPlainSight @mediamonarchy #JeffCensored @joeimbriano777 @Scottymechanic https://www.ypo.org/2020/04/latest-ypo-survey-explores-covid-19-business-outlook/ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEMm4MtJkNuHIV8snMIL32g Tell a Story to make your pitch – it doesn’t have to be true, of course, you just have to tell it with feeling because that’s what people want: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56uZRCxh0uc Pages 192-201 31. Defendant’s Search on LVNV in her email. Results: 25. First email shown: Feb 2015, then March 2019 Pages 216-217 32, Defendant made search on RESURGENT CAPITAL SERVICES, LP Page 218 – 221 33. Printout of all cases involving LVNV in Judicial Branch Website Pages 222- 232   5/13/2020 Email from True Accord/Peter Martin “I realize you didn’t respond to our previous offers this offer still may not be feasible for you at the moment. You can explore your other payment options on our website….” LVNV account number ending in 2780, which may be Amazon depending on how they feel that day! No mention of processing a Small Claim against the Defendant obviously because they cooked it up to help their Satanic Brother Donald Trump, as revenge for submitting Petition to Remove Trump Now on 6/8/2020. They BACKDATED DOCUMENTS TO “PROVE” IT HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH THE PETITION AND IN SUCH A HURRY THEY MADE TYPOS THAT WERE NOT CORRECTED. 34. 6/12/2020 Defendant email with subject: I hope these companies all get taken down and whoever funds them! Yet when it is forwarded, the subject is: This is what I was going to mail 4:40 pm Page 236 35. Defendant attempted to do a business search AGAIN through Secretary of State’s website (since prior search did not include LVNV; and they altered the record after she sent emails to people she keeps in contact with emphasizing that LVNV was not even registered in Connecticut) Page 259 36. Business Search on True Accord since it was not listed as one of the SHERMAN COMPANIES like Resurgent, LVNV, etc. INSUFFICIENT RESULTS Pages 258 to 265 37. Business Search by Defendant. RESURGENT CAPITAL Page 270 38. Defendant Searched on Sherman Companies Headquarters Pages 273-274 39. Defenant searched email for LVNV, 2020 emails. Page 275 40. Additional Case Information printed, due to changes in Updates Pages 276 - 284 41. Proof of Defendant’s efiling yet the Court Services Intercepted and blocked her efforts, claiming she had to email her license to them, which is a violation of privacy. They refused to take a copy in the mail or by fax. Written statement by Defendant included. Defendant claimed ABUSE OF PROCEDURE. Pages 285 – 290 42. CASE LOOKUP. “Only those arguable motions marked take papers will be considered by the Court at this time” – which is a violation of Due Process for Small Claims. Addtionally, at no point was the Defendant informed that this Small Claims action against her would be transferred to civil court on the court’s own motion, and also would not even be heard unless the party marks “Take Papers” which means the exact opposite of Testimony Required – indeed reflective of Satanic behavior, not Administration of the Law. No motions have been submitted on this Small Claim by the Defendant. It is not a usual part of the process. Pages 291-295 43. Info on LVNV Funding LLC – their phone number has shopping ads, and other advertisements. No one answers. No voicemail. Yet this is the address which they use, as printed: 55 Beattie Place, Suite 110, MS501, Greenville, SC 29601, Phone: 888-665-0374. Pages 296-298 44. Defendant validates her claim there is no Pandemic, they are lying, which also makes her a TARGETED CITIZEN. Two page printout off CDC website which shows deliberate extraction of Jan – June 2019 and no information for 2020 – defendant obviously intercepted their abilty to fraud records and seemingly get away with it, as if Defendant was not the only one searching this information. Defendant’s Statement All information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. There are a few unaccounted for pages yet amending this took a tremendous amount of time due to unforeseen struggles with the Appendix not lining up with the submitted Timeline, even though defendant claims she created a draft of the Timeline relying on the assembled Appendix documents. Certification of Service to Plaintiff Defendant Anne M. Bradley will be serving an electronic SCANNED copy of aforesaid Amended Timeline to info@stillmanlawoffice.com this day, July 13, 2020. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬________________________ ###### REMINDER - The court has not uploaded any of my documents on the case, including a substantial Appendix submitted on the Answer Date - including my Countersuit submitted on the Answer Date. Served on the Plaintiff via through email since the Plaintiff was enjoying electronic appearance WITH NO APPEARANCE ON RECORD. MY COUNTERSUIT WAS NOT PROCESSED EITHER YET i SUBMITTED IT TIMELY ###################################### Case No. NNH-CV-20-6105010-S : State of Connecticut LNV FUNDING, LLC ASSIGNEE OF SYNCHRONY BANK : SMALL CLAIMS COURT VS ANNE M. BRADLEY :JUNE 29, 2020 August 7, 2020 DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES Append to July 9 Answer and Special Defenses This document is to be scanned in with JD-CV108 Form and prepared attachments submitted July 9, 2020 - which the court has not scanned in to this day. 1. Plaintiff failed to serve the defendant according to PB 24-1 to PB 24-10. a. Priority Mail did not have and delivery information when defendant looked up the tracking number. Conclusion: Someone other than the mailclerk who delivers mail to defendant’s residence placed it in defendant’s mailbox. The mailman or woman has to scan it as delivered. Defendant is confident they never waiver on their duties. It was not even entered as being sent according to tracking information. Defendant reported this to a federal authority and mailed the information. Defendant scanned in an 82-page document. A false alarm causing tenants to evacuate the building resulted in that scanned document to have pages which only print all black. (i) The management reported the false alarm was due to an employee “accidentally” pulling the fire alarm in the store which has been operating for ten years. No one called authorities to explain it was a false alarm even though there are some severely disabled people in this building, and defendant saw a personal care assistant making her patient struggle down several flights of stairs even though he was very weak and shaking and using just a cane. There was also a couple who had to bring their baby outside. b. The alleged Priority Mail had a return address of a company titled KELLERMAN INVESTIGATIONS, LTD – located in Glen Carbon, IL. The only tracking information was a confirmation that the stamp had been purchased. It is against postal law to allow a customer to purchase a priority mail sticker unless it is being delivered that day. If they mail it another day, they have to get a new sticker, which may be replaced and not re-purchased upon explaining circumstances to the postal clerk. Most likely someone purchased it through their mail machine yet the machine would require both sender and receiver information. Note, a Certification of Service is required to be included in the Priority Mail the date which a mailing is sent to the receiver/defendant. There is no Certification of Service which provides that statement with the documents which were in the Priority Mail envelope. The printout showing defendant’s results when typing in the tracking number ON APRIL 23, 2020 has been submitted to the court. A copy of the Amended Timeline dated 7/13/2020 (which is also used to serve as Appendix to documents served to the Plaintiff and Court on 7/13/2020) is attached to this Revised Submission, which should be scanned in with the FORM which Defendant Prepared, attachments to the form, no stapled due to the court’s ABUSE OF PROCESS. PLAINTIFF CLAIMS THE PRIORITY MAIL WAS DELIVERED TO HER RESIDENCE ON APRIL 9, WHICH IS FALSE. (i) Note, both the Small Claim Writ Form and Affidavit are required to be the same date iaw PB 24-24. Small Claim Writ Form was signed by Connecticut Attorney who uses Michigan Law Office as Juris Number, claiming to be a Commissioner of the Court – WHICH IS NOT A NOTARY. Attached is a Supplement to this Appended Document to Answer And Special Defenses. Only if a Writ AND Notice of Suit is Notarized may a plaintiff forego submitting a separate Affidavit of Debt. Yet in this case, the plaintiff deliberately submitted an illegal Affidavit of Debt – not only fraudulent yet not even dated properly – of which is ANOTHER reason which the court should have acted in its duties by removing this case from the docket since it has no merit. (ii) Note, although Defendant’s appearance includes filing electronically AS A MATTER OF RIGHT, the state’s Small Claims Dept. intercepted her processing by adding-on another requirement despite the fact that the defendant was ALREADY REGISTERED and attempting to upload her first document. Defendant claims this is not just ABUSE OF PROCESS. IT IS ALSO FRAUD. An acclaimed attorney in the Small Claims Dept. claimed she added this request and the only way she would allow defendant to send her a copy of defendant’s PICTURE ID is through internet – not US Mail, not FAX – which is a deliberate violation of the defendant’s privacy AND RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS. c. According to the court on aforesaid case, the plaintiff is LVNV Funding with no address of record on the Court Form JD-CV-40A1 – which is supposed to be an ANSWER FORM which ONLY THE DEFENDANT COMPLETES. LVNV WAS NOT REGISTERED IN THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT, YET AFTER DEFENDANT MENTIONED THIS THROUGH HER EMAIL TO CONTACTS SHE KEEPS IN TOUCH WITH, THE SECRETARY OF STATE ALTERED THE RECORD TO INCLUDE LVNV FUNDING LLC with a main address as Las Vegas, Nevada, and a secondary address as the state of Delaware – neither address of which is a PO Box in Greenville, SC, which is ILLEGALLLY on the Small Claim Form. Defendant has submitted the very proof that her search on LVNV resulted in no information, yet the website was working fine for all other information which defendant made searches on. The ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES is a form that defendant should be completing. Not the court. According to the Small Claims Writ as well as Rules of court and Statutes of Connecticut, the plaintiff has an address which SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN IN BY THE COURT: PO Boxes are not places of operation or residency. Additionally, this address is located in Greenville, SC – and the plaintiff on the Small Claim is not registered in the state of Connecticut; and if it was, could not use that address for the record. There is nothing in the short affidavit, used as a Complaint, which explains why it used a PO Box for address of record. Defendant can only speculate, due to the hundreds of Small Claims filings by LVNV Funding in Connecticut, that certain politicians allow this nefarious company to prosecute as plaintiff without being registered in Connecticut because they or other politicians in Washington, DC probably make money off them as investors, and most likely are used to propagate the Satanic Underground’s New World Order Agenda. Additionally, a person by the name of Matthew Bardos signed this small claim without identifying who he is. A SCRIBBLE was made under his name, claiming to be a Commissioner of the Court, SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN, with no stamp of when Commission Expires along with name on the stamp. The Small Claims Writ Form which was in the Priority Mail flat-rate envelope to defendant - from the nefarious company in Illinois - in June 2020 is not even stamped by the court, which is another defective matter on this case. A Writ is an Order By The Court. This is a definition in the Black’s Law Dictionary, which cannot be questioned. (i) On June 29, 2020, defendant printed the tracking information since her 82-page scanned document had certain pages blacked-out, replacing what was actually scanned in. (Cyber Crime occurred the same time there was a false fire alarm in the building requiring all tenants to leave the building – tenants were not told to walk back up even though management was well aware of the supposed accidental pulling of the fire alarm. The pages still exist and don’t just print as blank white pages, thus reflecting the document had been altered.. They come out completely black with ink, reflecting the document had been deliberately altered by someone who accessed that file remotely or directly on defendant’s laptop - which reflects one of many issues of CYBER CRIME on this case. c. The Statement of Service, was prepared AFTER the plaintiff claims to have mailed the PRIORITY MAIL FROM ILLINOIS (proving that this certification was non Compliant – another reason this case has no merit) It is signed by a person with no identity, not title, rather than being consistent by using Kellerman, who is not even a party to this case and has never been a party to a case in Connecticut according to a records search made by the Defendant. This only damages the credibility of this case all the more. The person apparently is an attorney, Christopher Moylan, with a Juris No. of 402604. Defendant attempted to locate this Juris No. though there is no indication in this Small Claim paperwork where this attorney practices. (i) Upon doing a search of this Juris Number, Defendant discovered that this attorney has an Active Status and is marked with “A”, rather than “F” for Pro Hac Vice, as the Stillman Law Office used when submitting this small claim electronically. This attorney’s address is at the Stillman Law Office at 41 Kenosha Ave, Suite 302, Danbury, CT 06810 with a Business ID of 1166757 He had no authority to prepare a Certification of Service for a company located in Illinois. Additionally, the Stillman Law Office which is referred to by the court on the only document which the court gave the defendant (Pre-prepared Defendant’s Answer and Special Defenses) is located at 30057 Orchard Lake Road, Suite 200 Dept 100, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48334. Their Business ID is 438732. Refer to Supplement to this Appended Document since upon discovery, the plaintiff-attorneys (both Moylan and Bardos) have false identities online. 2. “Affidavit of Facts and Purchase Of Account” By Plaintiff was included in paperwork and NEVER mailed to the defendant PRIOR to entering the small claim case. Plaintiff made another false statement regarding it served defendant this affidavit. Upon viewing the case information, the court ADDED pages to this affidavit, titled “Notice of Suit” which is outright fraudulent. Logically speaking, Notice of Suit is required to be sent 4 weeks prior to mailing a Small Claim. This was a “fudging of records” to cover up the signed Small Claim of 5/5/2020 yet not entered into court until two months later, despite the fact attorneys in Connecticut can electronically file cases right from their work locations online. 3. The only reason defendant is not submitting an immediate MOTION TO DISMISS AND EXPUNGE is because the Defendant claims a right to COUNTERSUE, of which was submitted, to the fullest amount for a Small Claim – yet this amount would certainly be increased if this case was made a Civil Lawsuit since this case does not have a Small Claims Number, but a Civil Case Number. An application for Fee Waiver was submitted timely. The court claimed defendant could not have it signed by them because she could not go to their office. Therefore, defendant entered “No Clerk available due to COVID Agenda”. Rather than tell the defendant to resubmit a fee waiver and they would meet her by the Marshall’s workstation, the court returned a selected group of papers, strategically claiming they could not accept them because the fee waiver had to be signed by their office clerk. Defendant was not called about this, they simply took the liberty of violating Due Process. Defendant immediately returned them upon getting them in the mail, claiming ABUSE OF PROCEDURE. There was already a fee waiver entered in court, signed by their Deputy Chief Clerk, by the time these documents were received in THIRD CLASS MAIL (another opportunity to abuse procedure, to slow the process) since the defendant had called the court by chance, and they told her they mailed those documents to her that same day (no doubt having the ability to remove them from the mail) and defendant said that was completely illogical since a new fee waiver would have to be submitted if they wanted the deputy chief clerk to sign it at the marshall’s workstation – which was an added-on requirement AFTER defendant called them and informed them she would be submitting a fee waiver for the filing and processing (including service process) of the COUNTERSUIT – ALL OF WHICH WERE ELECTRONICALLY SERVED ON THE PLAINTIFF THROUGH EMAIL, WITH VERBAL CONFIRMATION BY THEIR OFFICE THAT THE EMAIL WAS RECEIVED. Prepared and submitted FOR THE DEFENDANT PRO SE _________________________ Anne M. Bradley, Pro Se CERTIFICATION OF SERVICE AFORESAID “Appended Document to “Defendant’s Answer And Special Defenses”, comprising of SIX PAGES, along with Supplement of TWENTY-FOUR PAGES, is NOT being electronically served on the plaintiff due to the abuse of process, CYBER CRIME, and deceptive manner in which the Stillman Law Firm claim only by phone verbally they received those documents (copies of current email, etc. included in Supplement) in the email at the time defendant called their 800 number on the appearance form – refusing to tell the defendant where they were actually located, which no doubt is NOT where the address of record on the Small Claims Form was. These papers are being mailed today from the Yale Post Office if their machine is available to pay for postage. Otherwise, the papers will be mailed at Yale Post Office, THIRD CLASS MAIL, tomorrow, Saturday. Due to reduced hours of operation, defendant is unable to send them today unless their machine is operating. The counter closes at 2p.m. Mon-Friday and is open 9-12 on Saturdays. A copy of the proof will be retained – unlike what the plaintiff did when mailing the Priority Mail flat, with a printout from USPS. Instead, they created an Affidavit with unverified information and at the time where USPS indicated there was absolutely no tracking on that number. The stamp had only been purchased. ________________________ Anne M. Bradley ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** CONNECTICUT RULES OF COURT CHAPTER 24 – Note, these rules can be searched online ATTACHED PAGES 280-283 Pages 16-19 of this Section CONNECTICUT STATUTES CGS 51-15 (2012) ATTACHED PAGES 6-10 (Printed by Defendant 6/23/2020 – 7/9/2020) Pages 20 – 23 of this Section USC Title 15, Section 1692 1. U.S. Code 2. Title 15. COMMERCE AND TRADE 3. Chapter 41. CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION – PROVIDED BELOW BY DEFENDANT 4. Subchapter V. DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES – PROVIDED BELOW BY DEFENDANT 5. Section 1692. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose Note: Defendant emphasizes that LVNV had only cited this following law in the documentation which the Defendant was able to recover, based on scanned documents in her emails, since her financial records were all stolen out of her apartment.; thereby holding THEMSELVES accountable. Second Note: According to the online technocrats on the Cornell University Website, the crafted definition of the word DEBT is the following: Debt Definition is NOT Constitutional – no company can abuse its power by alleging. BURDEN OF PROOF SHOULD BE MANDATORY AND IS ALREADY PART OF THE LAW; CANNOT BE BROKEN. (5) The term “debt” means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. ACCORDING TO BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY, A DEBT CANNOT BE ALLEGED: Liability on a claim; a specific sum of money due by agreement… 15 U.S. Code § 1692.Congressional findings and declaration of purpose • U.S. Code • Notes prev | next (a)ABUSIVE PRACTICES There is abundant evidence of the use of abusive, deceptive, and unfair debt collection practices by many debt collectors. Abusive debt collection practices contribute to the number of personal bankruptcies, to marital instability, to the loss of jobs, and to invasions of individual privacy. (b)INADEQUACY OF LAWS Existing laws and procedures for redressing these injuries are inadequate to protect consumers. (c)AVAILABLE NON-ABUSIVE COLLECTION METHODS Means other than misrepresentation or other abusive debt collection practices are available for the effective collection of debts. (d)INTERSTATE COMMERCE Abusive debt collection practices are carried on to a substantial extent in interstate commerce and through means and instrumentalities of such commerce. Even where abusive debt collection practices are purely intrastate in character, they nevertheless directly affect interstate commerce. (e)PURPOSES It is the purpose of this subchapter to eliminate abusive debt collection practices by debt collectors, to insure that those debt collectors who refrain from using abusive debt collection practices are not competitively disadvantaged, and to promote consistent State action to protect consumers against debt collection abuses. (Pub. L. 90–321, title VIII, § 802, as added Pub. L. 95–109, Sept. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 874.) Third Note: Secret Societies have been dictating the mechanisms which, in fact they have no right to dictate. They conspire, they are ultimately the worst organized crime in this nation and therefore should be considered DOMESTIC TERRORISTS. 15 U.S. Code CHAPTER 41—CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION prev | next 1. SUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMER CREDIT COST DISCLOSURE (§§ 1601 – 1667f) 2. SUBCHAPTER II—RESTRICTIONS ON GARNISHMENT (§§ 1671 – 1677) 3. SUBCHAPTER II–A—CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS (§§ 1679 – 1679j) 4. SUBCHAPTER III—CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES (§§ 1681 – 1681x) 5. SUBCHAPTER IV—EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY (§§ 1691 – 1691f) 6. SUBCHAPTER V—DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES (§§ 1692 – 1692p) 7. SUBCHAPTER VI—ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (§§ 1693 – 1693r) 15 U.S. Code SUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMER CREDIT COST DISCLOSURE Note by Defendant: Burden of Proof should be all over this! Nevertheless, due to standards and practices, the Plaintiff if OBLIGATED TO PROVE AND HAS REFUSED TO DO SO, AS STATED IN DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND SPECIAL DEFENSES. 15 U.S. Code PART A—GENERAL PROVISIONS prev | next 1. § 1601. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose 2. § 1602. Definitions and rules of construction 3. § 1603. Exempted transactions 4. § 1604. Disclosure guidelines 5. § 1605. Determination of finance charge 6. § 1606. Determination of annual percentage rate 7. § 1607. Administrative enforcement 8. § 1608. Views of other agencies 9. § 1609. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–239, § 3(b)(1), Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 253 10. § 1610. Effect on other laws 11. § 1611. Criminal liability for willful and knowing violation 12. § 1612. Effect on government agencies 13. § 1613. Annual reports to Congress by Bureau 14. § 1614. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, § 616(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 182 15. § 1615. Prohibition on use of “Rule of 78’s” in connection with mortgage refinancings and other consumer loans 16. § 1616. Board review of consumer credit plans and regulations 15 U.S. Code § 1607 - Administrative enforcement (a)ENFORCING AGENCIESSubject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], compliance with the requirements imposed under this subchapter shall be enforced under— (1)section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], by the appropriate Federal banking agency, as defined in section 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(q)), with respect to— (A) national banks, Federal savings associations, and Federal branches and Federal agencies of foreign banks; (B) member banks of the Federal Reserve System (other than national banks), branches and agencies of foreign banks (other than Federal branches, Federal agencies, and insured State branches of foreign banks), commercial lending companies owned or controlled by foreign banks, and organizations operating under section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 611 et seq.]; and (C) banks and State savings associations insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (other than members of the Federal Reserve System), and insured State branches of foreign banks; (2) the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.], by the Director of the National Credit Union Administration, with respect to any Federal credit union; (3) part A of subtitle VII of title 49, by the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to any air carrier or foreign air carrier subject to that part; (4) the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921 [7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.] (except as provided in section 406 of that Act [7 U.S.C. 226, 227]), by the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to any activities subject to that Act; (5) the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.], by the Farm Credit Administration with respect to any Federal land bank, Federal land bank association, Federal intermediate credit bank, or production credit association; and (6) subtitle E of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5561 et seq.], by the Bureau, with respect to any person subject to this subchapter. (7) sections 21B and 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78u–2, 78u–3], in the case of a broker or dealer, other than a depository institution, by the Securities and Exchange Commission. (b)VIOLATIONS OF THIS SUBCHAPTER DEEMED VIOLATIONS OF PRE-EXISTING STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS; ADDITIONAL AGENCY POWERS For the purpose of the exercise by any agency referred to in subsection (a) of its powers under any Act referred to in that subsection, a violation of any requirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed to be a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. In addition to its powers under any provision of law specifically referred to in subsection (a), each of the agencies referred to in that subsection may exercise, for the purpose of enforcing compliance with any requirement imposed under this subchapter, any other authority conferred on it by law. (c)OVERALL ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY OF THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Except to the extent that enforcement of the requirements imposed under this subchapter is specifically committed to some other Government agency under any of paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection (a), and subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], the Federal Trade Commission shall be authorized to enforce such requirements. For the purpose of the exercise by the Federal Trade Commission of its functions and powers under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.], a violation of any requirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. All of the functions and powers of the Federal Trade Commission under the Federal Trade Commission Act are available to the Federal Trade Commission to enforce compliance by any person with the requirements under this subchapter, irrespective of whether that person is engaged in commerce or meets any other jurisdictional tests under the Federal Trade Commission Act. (d)RULES AND REGULATIONS The authority of the Bureau to issue regulations under this subchapter does not impair the authority of any other agency designated in this section to make rules respecting its own procedures in enforcing compliance with requirements imposed under this subchapter. (e)ADJUSTMENT OF FINANCE CHARGES; PROCEDURES APPLICABLE, COVERAGE, CRITERIA, ETC. (1) In carrying out its enforcement activities under this section, each agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c), in cases where an annual percentage rate or finance charge was inaccurately disclosed, shall notify the creditor of such disclosure error and is authorized in accordance with the provisions of this subsection to require the creditor to make an adjustment to the account of the person to whom credit was extended, to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower. For the purposes of this subsection, except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in determining whether a disclosure error has occurred and in calculating any adjustment, (A) each agency shall apply (i) with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance of one-quarter of 1 percent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, and (ii) with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerance provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate; except that (B) with respect to transactions consummated after two years following March 31, 1980, each agency shall apply (i) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of ten years or less, with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance not to exceed one-quarter of 1 percent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, but in no event a tolerance of less than the tolerances allowed under section 1606(c) of this title, (ii) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of more than ten years, with respect to the annual percentage rate, only such tolerances as are allowed under section 1606(c) of this title, and (iii) for all transactions, with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerances provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate. (2)Each agency shall require such an adjustment when it determines that such disclosure error resulted from (A) a clear and consistent pattern or practice of violations, (B) gross negligence, or (C) a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom the credit was extended. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, an agency need not require such an adjustment if it determines that such disclosure error— (A) resulted from an error involving the disclosure of a fee or charge that would otherwise be excludable in computing the finance charge, including but not limited to violations involving the disclosures described in sections 1605(b), (c) and (d) of this title, in which event the agency may require such remedial action as it determines to be equitable, except that for transactions consummated after two years after March 31, 1980, such an adjustment shall be ordered for violations of section 1605(b) of this title; (B) involved a disclosed amount which was 10 per centum or less of the amount that should have been disclosed and (i) in cases where the error involved a disclosed finance charge, the annual percentage rate was disclosed correctly, and (ii) in cases where the error involved a disclosed annual percentage rate, the finance charge was disclosed correctly; in which event the agency may require such adjustment as it determines to be equitable; (C) involved a total failure to disclose either the annual percentage rate or the finance charge, in which event the agency may require such adjustment as it determines to be equitable; or (D) resulted from any other unique circumstance involving clearly technical and nonsubstantive disclosure violations that do not adversely affect information provided to the consumer and that have not misled or otherwise deceived the consumer. In the case of other such disclosure errors, each agency may require such an adjustment. (3)Notwithstanding paragraph (2), no adjustment shall be ordered— (A)if it would have a significantly adverse impact upon the safety or soundness of the creditor, but in any such case, the agency may— (i) require a partial adjustment in an amount which does not have such an impact; or (ii) require the full adjustment, but permit the creditor to make the required adjustment in partial payments over an extended period of time which the agency considers to be reasonable, if (in the case of an agency referred to in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a)), the agency determines that a partial adjustment or making partial payments over an extended period is necessary to avoid causing the creditor to become undercapitalized pursuant to section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1831o]; (B) the [1] amount of the adjustment would be less than $1, except that if more than one year has elapsed since the date of the violation, the agency may require that such amount be paid into the Treasury of the United States, or (C)except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in the case of an open-end credit plan, more than two years after the violation, or in the case of any other extension of credit, as follows: (i) with respect to creditors that are subject to examination by the agencies referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (a) of this section, except in connection with violations arising from practices identified in the current examination and only in connection with transactions that are consummated after the date of the immediately preceding examination, except that where practices giving rise to violations identified in earlier examinations have not been corrected, adjustments for those violations shall be required in connection with transactions consummated after the date of examination in which such practices were first identified; (ii) with respect to creditors that are not subject to examination by such agencies, except in connection with transactions that are consummated after May 10, 1978; and (iii) in no event after the later of (I) the expiration of the life of the credit extension, or (II) two years after the agreement to extend credit was consummated. (4) (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an adjustment under this subsection may be required by an agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) only by an order issued in accordance with cease and desist procedures provided by the provision of law referred to in such subsections. (B) In case of an agency which is not authorized to conduct cease and desist proceedings, such an order may be issued after an agency hearing on the record conducted at least thirty but not more than sixty days after notice of the alleged violation is served on the creditor. Such a hearing shall be deemed to be a hearing which is subject to the provisions of section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(h)] and shall be subject to judicial review as provided therein. (5) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subsection and notwithstanding any provision of law referred to in subsection (a) or (c), no agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) may require a creditor to make dollar adjustments for errors in any requirements under this subchapter, except with regard to the requirements of section 1666d of this title. (6) A creditor shall not be subject to an order to make an adjustment, if within sixty days after discovering a disclosure error, whether pursuant to a final written examination report or through the creditor’s own procedures, the creditor notifies the person concerned of the error and adjusts the account so as to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower. (7) Notwithstanding the second sentence of subsection (e)(1), subsection (e)(3)(C)(i), and subsection (e)(3)(C)(ii), each agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) shall require an adjustment for an annual percentage rate disclosure error that exceeds a tolerance of one quarter of one percent less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, with respect to any transaction consummated between January 1, 1977, and March 31, 1980. (Pub. L. 90–321, title I, § 108, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 91–206, § 3, Mar. 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 93–495, title IV, § 403, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1517; Pub. L. 95–630, title V, § 501, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3680; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, § 608(a), (c), Mar. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 171, 173; Pub. L. 98–443, § 9(n), Oct. 4, 1984, 98 Stat. 1708; Pub. L. 101–73, title VII, § 744(k), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 439; Pub. L. 102–242, title II, § 212(b), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2299; Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, § 1604(a)(5), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4082; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, § 2106, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–402; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, § 1100A(2), (8), title XIV, § 1414(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2108, 2152.) OPN: Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 LINK: https://www.law.cornell.edu/topn/consumer_financial_protection_act_of_2010 Laws acquire popular names as they make their way through Congress. Sometimes these names say something about the substance of the law (as with the '2002 Winter Olympic Commemorative Coin Act'). Sometimes they are a way of recognizing or honoring the sponsor or creator of a particular law (as with the 'Taft-Hartley Act'). And sometimes they are meant to garner political support for a law by giving it a catchy name (as with the 'USA Patriot Act' or the 'Take Pride in America Act') or by invoking public outrage or sympathy (as with any number of laws named for victims of crimes). History books, newspapers, and other sources use the popular name to refer to these laws. Why can't these popular names easily be found in the US Code? How the US Code is built. The United States Code is meant to be an organized, logical compilation of the laws passed by Congress. At its top level, it divides the world of legislation into fifty topically-organized Titles, and each Title is further subdivided into any number of logical subtopics. In theory, any law -- or individual provisions within any law -- passed by Congress should be classifiable into one or more slots in the framework of the Code. On the other hand, legislation often contains bundles of topically unrelated provisions that collectively respond to a particular public need or problem. A farm bill, for instance, might contain provisions that affect the tax status of farmers, their management of land or treatment of the environment, a system of price limits or supports, and so on. Each of these individual provisions would, logically, belong in a different place in the Code. (Of course, this isn't always the case; some legislation deals with a fairly narrow range of related concerns.) The process of incorporating a newly-passed piece of legislation into the Code is known as "classification" -- essentially a process of deciding where in the logical organization of the Code the various parts of the particular law belong. Sometimes classification is easy; the law could be written with the Code in mind, and might specifically amend, extend, or repeal particular chunks of the existing Code, making it no great challenge to figure out how to classify its various parts. And as we said before, a particular law might be narrow in focus, making it both simple and sensible to move it wholesale into a particular slot in the Code. But this is not normally the case, and often different provisions of the law will logically belong in different, scattered locations in the Code. As a result, often the law will not be found in one place neatly identified by its popular name. Nor will a full-text search of the Code necessarily reveal where all the pieces have been scattered. Instead, those who classify laws into the Code typically leave a note explaining how a particular law has been classified into the Code. It is usually found in the Note section attached to a relevant section of the Code, usually under a paragraph identified as the "Short Title". How the LII Table of Popular Names works. Our Table of Popular Names is organized alphabetically by popular name. You'll find three types of link associated with each popular name (though each law may not have all three types). One, a reference to a Public Law number, is a link to the bill as it was originally passed by Congress, and will take you to the LRC THOMAS legislative system, or GPO FDSYS site. So-called "Short Title" links, and links to particular sections of the Code, will lead you to a textual roadmap (the section notes) describing how the particular law was incorporated into the Code. Finally, acts may be referred to by a different name, or may have been renamed, the links will take you to the appropriate listing in the table. Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 Pub. L. 111-203, title X, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955 Short title, see 12 U.S.C. 5301 note Pub. L. 111-203 title X this act refers to only a portion of the Public Law; the tables below are for the entire Public Law Pub. L. Section Status United States Code Title Section Authorizes 1098A(2) 15 1715 1098A(1) 15 1719 1098A(1) 15 1718 12 CFR • 1010 • 1011 • 1012 1098A(1) 15 1717a 12 CFR • 1083 24 CFR • 30 1098A(1) 15 1716 1098A(1) 15 1715 1098A(1) 15 1714 24 CFR • 3800 1098A(1) 15 1712 1098A(1) 15 1710 1098A(1) 15 1708 1098A(1) 15 1707 1098A(1) 15 1706 1098A(1) 15 1705 1098A(1) 15 1704 1098A(1) 15 1702 1098(11) 12 2617 12 CFR • 4 • 1024 • 1026 24 CFR • 3800 1098(10) 12 2616 12 CFR • 4 24 CFR • 3800 1098(9) 12 2614 12 CFR • 4 24 CFR • 3800 1098(8) 12 2609 12 CFR • 4 Note, there are numerous pages on this link ####################################################################################################################################### ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON PAMELA SHERMAN - JOHNSON AND MORE • 2Career o 2.1Lawyer o 2.2Professor o 2.3Actor o 2.4The Suburban Outlaw o 2.5Leadership Consultant • 3Personal life • 4References Early life and education[edit] Sherman was born on Staten Island, New York in 1962. Her father was a practicing Obstetrician and Gynecologist and her mother a Freudian Psychoanalyst. In 1980, she graduated from Tottenville High School on Staten Island, New York. Sherman studied at the American University in Washington, D.C. attaining degrees in International Relations and Theater in 1984 and a J.D. degree from Yeshiva University Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law in 1987. Upon leaving the law to become an actress, she attended the British American Drama Academy at Balliol College at Oxford University in 1992,[3] and the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. Career[edit] Lawyer[edit] After graduating law school, Sherman began the practice of law in Washington, D.C. with the firm of Dechert, Price & Rhoads (now Dechert LLP). Her focus was in securities matters, employment litigation and entertainment law. She then moved to the firm Melrod Redman & Gartlan also based in Washington, D.C.[4] Professor[edit] Sherman was an adjunct professor at American University where she created an award-winning curriculum in Arts Law in the Arts Management Program. She has guest-lectured at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, the Rochester Institute of Technology and the Education Doctoral Program at St. John Fisher College. Among other seminars she has organized, is Acting for Lawyers at the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C.[4] Actor[edit] After her law firm went out of business, Sherman returned to stage acting including shows at a number of Washington, D.C. area theaters. She had an extended run playing Mrs. Schubert in Shear Madness at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.[1] She has also appeared in a number of television shows, commercials and plays. Sherman, along with the award-winning playwright Caleen Sinnette Jennings co-authored and performed the one-woman show, Pumping Josey: Life and Death in Suburbia.[5] The show premiered at Horizon's Theatre, the oldest women's theater in America (now part of the Kennedy Center for Performing Arts). After a near-decade hiatus from the stage, in 2017 she appeared in Geva Theatre Center's run of Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End.[6] Sherman recently starred in Geva Theatre Center’s production of the one-woman show Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End and broke box office records for productions in the Fielding Stage. The run was extended twice due to popular demand with most performances selling out well before the production had even begun. [7] Geva Theatre Center’s production of Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End, starring Pam Sherman, was picked up by the Denver Center for the 2019-2020 Broadway Season. [8] A review of the production states that "Pam Sherman does a masterful job playing Bombeck, one zinger after another, and making her relevant to a 21st Century audience." [9] Following a sold-out run in Denver, Shea's Performing Arts Center in Buffalo, New York, announced that Shea's 710 Theater will present Erma Bombeck: At Wit's End, starring Pam Sherman, starting November 5th, 2019. [10] "We are very excited to partner with Rochester's Geva Theatre to bring their blockbuster hit to Buffalo audiences" states President of Shea's Performing Arts Center, Michael G. Murphy. [11] In addition to theatre, Sherman has also acted in minor roles in the NBC series Unsolved Mysteries and Homicide: Life on the Streets.[2] She also appeared in the movie The Alphabet Killer[2] in 2008. The Suburban Outlaw[edit] In 2001, Sherman was asked to write a column for Rochester Magazine, owned by Gannett. The Suburban Outlaw Column in Rochester Magazine expanded to a weekly column in the Rochester, New York Newspaper the Democrat and Chronicle.[12] Gannett then syndicated the Suburban Outlaw column among their newspapers nationally and digitally among their television stations. Her TEDx talk, "An Outlaw's Journey through the Arab Spring" focuses on her international travels.[13] Leadership Consultant[edit] She is a keynote speaker and provides group and individual training programs to explore the EDGE for organizations as diverse as law firms, advertising agencies and Fortune 500 companies. Sherman provides training and development programs for business leaders all over the world on a variation of topics. Sherman is actively involved in the international organization, Young Presidents' Organization,[4] Chairing the first-ever Spouse Experience for the 2009 Global Leadership Conference and serving on the International Youth & Family Task Force Personal life[edit] Sherman lives with her husband, Neal Sherman and two children in Pittsford, New York (a suburb of Rochester, New York). References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b People Magazine - Going for It 2. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Pamela Sherman IMDB". 3. ^ Wendy Horwitz. "The Method Leads to Badness" (PDF). The Washington Post. 4. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Pam Sherman Biography". 5. ^ Tricia Olszewski. "Josey's Odyssey, From Big Apple To Crabgrass". The Washington Post. 6. ^ American Theatre Editors."Geva Theatre Announces 2017-18 Season" 7. ^ "Geva Announces The Return Of Pam Sherman As Erma Bombeck In ERMA BOMBECK: AT WIT'S END For A Strictly Limited Run". 8. ^ "Denver Center announces 2019/20 Broadway season". 9. ^ "At Wit's End Review". 10. ^ "Actress Lives Similar Life to That of Woman She Plays". 11. ^ "At Wit's End Scheduled to Replace Cancelled National Tour". 12. ^ "Pam Sherman - D&C Staff". 13. ^ "An Outlaw's Journey through the Arab Springs Pam Sherman at TEDxFlour City". Categories: • 1962 births • Living people • American lawyers • American actresses Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Ben Navarro From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Ben Navarro Born Benjamin W. Navarro 1962/1963 (age 56–57)[1] Williamstown, Massachusetts, US Nationality American Education University of Rhode Island Occupation Businessman Known for Founder and CEO, Sherman Financial Group Net worth US$3 billion (March 2018) Spouse(s) Kelly Navarro Children 4, including Emma Navarro Parent(s) Frank Navarro Benjamin W. Navarro (born 1962/1963) is an American billionaire businessman, the founder and chief executive officer (CEO) of Sherman Financial Group, LLC, which owns Credit One Bank. Contents • 1Early life • 2Career • 3Sports interests • 4Personal life • 5References Early life[edit] He is one of eight children of Frank Navarro, a college football coach who posed for the Norman Rockwell painting, "The Recruit".[2][3] He was born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, when his father was football coach at Williams College.[4] He grew up in Westerly and Chariho, Rhode Island.[5] He lived in Princeton, New Jersey and graduated from Princeton High School, when his father was coaching the Princeton University football team.[4] Navarro earned a bachelor's degree in finance from the University of Rhode Island.[1] Career[edit] Navarro worked for Goldman Sachs for three years, before joining Citigroup in 1988, rising to vice president and co-head of mortgage sales and trading.[1] He left Citigroup in 1997, and founded Sherman Financial Group, LLC, of which he is the chief executive officer (CEO).[1] Navarro has an estimated net worth of about $3 billion.[2][4] Sports interests[edit] Navarro owns the Live To Play Tennis Club in Mount Pleasant, Charleston, which has hosted two USTA national junior tennis championships, and five International Tennis Federation women's pro circuit tournaments.[6] In 2018, he was a bidder for the Carolina Panthers NFL sports franchise. He ultimately lost to David Tepper.[2] In September 2018, he bought Charleston Tennis LLC, owners of the Volvo Car Open women's tennis event, and the Family Circle Tennis Center and Volvo Car Stadium, through his company Beemok Sports LLC.[6] Personal life[edit] He is married to Kelly Navarro, they have four children and live in Charleston, South Carolina.[2][6] All four of his children are involved in tennis; Emma is the number two-ranked US junior, younger sister Meggie is also highly ranked.[6] References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d "Executive Profile: Benjamin W. Navarro". Bloomberg LP. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d "Potential Panthers owner Navarro is a low-profile billionaire". espn.co.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 3. ^ "Getting to know Panthers owner candidate Ben Navarro". 247sports.com. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 4. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Billionaire's row: A deep look at the potential bidders for the Carolina Panthers". wbtv.com. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 5. ^ "Ben Navarro Bio - Sherman Financial Group". sites.google.com. Retrieved 29 September 2018. 6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Courier, James Beck Special to The Post and. "Charleston billionaire Ben Navarro buys Volvo Car Open women's tennis event". postandcourier.com. Retrieved 29 September 2018. This article about a United States businessperson is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Categories: • 1960s births • Living people • Businesspeople from Charleston, South Carolina • University of Rhode Island alumni • Goldman Sachs people • Citigroup people • American billionaires • American chief executives of financial services companies • American company founders • People from Princeton, New Jersey • People from Williamstown, Massachusetts • Princeton High School (New Jersey) alumni • American business biography stubs Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Contribute • Help • Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools • What links here • Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Page information • Wikidata item • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF • Printable version Languages Add links • This page was last edited on 9 July 2019, at 13:59 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation Frank Navarro From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Frank Navarro Biographical details Born February 15, 1930 (age 90) White Plains, New York Alma mater University of Maryland Playing career 1950–1952 Maryland Position(s) Guard Coaching career (HC unless noted) 1955 Columbia (OL) 1956 Williams (freshmen) 1957–1962 Williams (assistant) 1963–1967 Williams 1968–1973 Columbia 1974–1977 Wabash 1978–1984 Princeton Head coaching record Overall 99–99–6 Tournaments 2–1 (NCAA D-III playoffs) Frank F. Navarro (born February 15, 1930) is a former American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at Williams College (1963-1967), Columbia University (1968-1973), Wabash College (1978-1984), and Princeton University (compiling a career college football coaching record of 99-99-6. In 1953, Navarro graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park, where he played on the Maryland Terrapins football team. As a standout offensive guard under legendary head coach and mentor, Jim Tatum, Navarro and the Terrapins advanced to the 1952 Sugar Bowl against Tennessee[1] (29-13), and finished the season as national champions. As the Korean War broke out, Navarro took action and joined the Air Force. After a two-year stint in the Air Force, Navarro headed to Teachers College at Columbia University, where the Lion’s head football coach, Lou Little, offered him the job of assistant offensive line coach under John Bateman in 1955. Littles’ offer ended Navarro’s pursuit of teaching and got him on the path to a career in coaching. Contents • 1Coaching career • 2Head coaching record • 3Personal life • 4References Coaching career[edit] Navarro joined the Williams College coaching staff in 1957 as an assistant to head coach, Len Watter’s, where Navarro introduced the “Monster Defense[2]” and rang up a slew of shutouts in the early 1960’s. In 1961 and 1962, the Ephs won 12 games and 8 of those wins came by blanking the opposition. The monster defense was designed for the linemen to tie up the blockers and allow the linebackers to make the tackles. The monster defense featured a new technique – slanting defensive linemen. The monster, or the scrape linebacker, was the one who was targeted to make tackles after the linemen tied up the offensive line. While at Williams, Navarro amassed a head coach record (1963-1967) of 28-11-1 with only 5 total losses in last four years, including a 7-0—1 mark in 1977, where he was named New England College Coach of the year[3]. Also, while at Williams, Norman Rockwell used Navarro as a model for the coach in his painting, “the Recruit”. After the 1967 season, Navarro left Williams to become the head coach at Columbia (1968-1973). He led the Lions to an impressive 6-3 mark in 1971, with the three losses coming by a combined total of just eight points. The winning 1971 season was the only three winning campaigns for Columbia since 1952. Navarro was named the New York Writers Association Eastern College Coach of the Year[4] for that achievement. Following Columbia, Navarro heading to Wabash College (1974-1977). During his four years at Wabash, he led the Little Giants to a combined 26-17 record, including an 18-5 mark over the last two seasons. Wabash had not had a winning season for ten consecutive years until Navarro led them to a 7-3 record in 1976. 1977 was even better as he directed the Little Giants to a 11-2 mark and a second-place finish in the NCAA Division III National Championship in a (39-36) shootout loss to Widener as the clock ran out. At Princeton, Navarro’s most gratifying season came in 1981 when the Tigers finished 5-4-1, including a stunning 35-31 last-second win over defending Ivy champions, Yale University, snapping Princeton’s 15 game losing streak to the arch rival Bulldogs. For his outstanding coaching performance in that game, Navarro was named UPI Coach of the Week[5]. By beating Yale and tying Harvard (17-17), Princeton captured its first Big Three title since 1966. Meanwhile, the Tigers’ 5-1-1 Ivy mark was their best League record since they won a share of the League title in 1969. Personal life[edit] After Navarro closed out his coaching career at Princeton (1978-1984), he moved to Charlestown, Rhode Island, to their summer home, where he spent time working with sons, Damon, Brian and Ed, on real estate syndication. For one year, Navarro served as a color commentator for UMASS football broadcasts and later spent six years on the broadcasts of the University of Rhode Island Rams. Navarro also founded the Literacy Foundation of Rhode Island, serving as board member and helped formed The Compass Fund, a Navarro family endeavor that funded educational scholarships for under-resourced children in the New London, CT area. Frank Navarro and his wife, Jill, are parents to seven sons and a daughter, and have twenty-two grandchildren. They currently reside in Mystic, Connecticut and continue to be engaged in a number of family businesses and philanthropic endeavors, and, of course, football. References[edit] 1. ^ firefly-wp. "1952 Game Recap". Official Site of the Allstate Sugar Bowl. Retrieved 2019-09-20. 2. ^ "Frank Navarro Introduced the "Monster Defense" at Williams". Williams. 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2019-09-20. 3. ^ Princeton Alumni Weekly. princeton alumni weekly. 1977. 4. ^ Jr, Gordon S. White (1971-12-16). "Navarro of Columbia Voted Coach of Year". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-09-20. 5. ^ Princeton Alumni Weekly. princeton alumni weekly. 1981. show Links to related articles Categories: • 1931 births • Living people • Columbia Lions football coaches • Maryland Terrapins football players • Princeton Tigers football coaches • Wabash Little Giants football coaches • Williams Ephs football coaches • People from White Plains, New York • Players of American football from New York (state) • Sportspeople from Westchester County, New York Collegiate secret societies in North America From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Collegiate secret societies in North America" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are many collegiate secret societies in North America. They vary greatly in their levels of secrecy and independence from their universities. As the term is used in this article, a secret society is a collegiate society where significant effort is made to keep affairs, membership rolls, signs of recognition, initiation, or other aspects secret from the public. Some collegiate secret societies are referred to as 'class societies', which restrict membership to one class year. Most class societies are restricted to the senior class, and are therefore also called senior societies on many campuses. Contents • 1Categorization o 1.1Common traits o 1.2Tapping o 1.3Honoraries • 2History • 3Individual institutions o 3.1Colgate University o 3.2The College of William & Mary o 3.3Cornell University o 3.4Dartmouth College o 3.5Dickinson College o 3.6Duke University o 3.7Emory University o 3.8Furman University o 3.9Florida State University o 3.10George Washington University o 3.11Georgetown University o 3.12Georgia Institute of Technology o 3.13Harvard University o 3.14James Madison University o 3.15Longwood University o 3.16New York University (NYU) o 3.17Norwich University o 3.18Pennsylvania State University o 3.19Princeton University o 3.20Rutgers University o 3.21University of California, Berkeley o 3.22University of Chicago o 3.23University of Cincinnati o 3.24University of Georgia o 3.25University of Miami o 3.26University of Michigan o 3.27University of Missouri o 3.28University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill o 3.29University of Pennsylvania o 3.30University of Southern California o 3.31University of Texas o 3.32University of South Carolina o 3.33University of Virginia o 3.34Virginia Military Institute o 3.35Washington and Lee University o 3.36Washington University in St. Louis o 3.37Yale University • 4List of notable North American collegiate secret societies • 5See also • 6References • 7Bibliography • 8External links Categorization[edit] There is no strict rule on the categorization of secret societies. Secret societies can have ceremonial initiations, secret signs of recognition (gestures, handshakes, passwords), formal secrets, (the 'true' name of the society, a motto, or a society history); but, college fraternities or "social fraternities" have the same, and some of these elements can also be a part of literary societies, singing groups, editorial boards, and honorary and pre-professional groups. Some secret societies have kept their membership secret, for example Seven Society and Gridiron, and some have not, like Skull and Bones (the Yale societies had published their membership lists in the yearbooks and the Yale Daily News). One key concept in distinguishing secret societies from fraternities is that, on campuses that have both kinds of organizations, one can be a member of both (that is, membership is not mutually exclusive). Usually, being a member of more than one fraternity is not considered appropriate, because that member would have divided loyalties; however, typically, there is not an issue being a member of a secret society and a fraternity, because they are not considered similar organizations or competing organizations.[1] An especially difficult problem is the degree to which any one society is an actual society or is simply an honorary designation. Phi Beta Kappa, for example, was a true secret society, but after its secrets were divulged, the society continued on. It claims today to still be an actual society that has meetings, conducts its affairs, and is a living social entity, however membership for most members consists of one evening's initiation, and no more, which would make the society completely an honorary one in most people's eyes. Many such societies exist which operate as honoraries on one campus, and which may have been at one time actual meeting societies, and which are kept alive by one or two dedicated local alumni or an alumni affairs or Dean's office person, who see to it that an annual initiation are held every year. Some of these frankly state that they are honoraries, other seek to perpetuate the image of a continuing active society where there is none. While there are some guideline criteria for the neutral observer to understand what sort of society any given organization is, much of the analysis reverts to what any one society has been traditionally understood to be. There are additional means, such as societies that were more or less explicitly established in emulation of some previous secret society, or using historical records to show that society X was created out of society Y. Common traits[edit] There are several common traits among these societies. For example, many societies have two part names, such as Skull and Bones or Scroll and Key. Many societies also limit their membership to a specific numerical limit in a class year. Extensive mortuary imagery is associated with many secret societies, maintaining a pretense of great seriousness, and clubhouses are often called "tombs". Tapping[edit] The archetypical selection process for entry into a collegiate secret society began at Yale University by a process called tapping.[1] On a publicly announced evening, Yale undergraduates would assemble informally in the College Yard. Current members of Yale's secret societies would walk through the crowd and literally tap a prospective member on the shoulder and then walk with him up to the tapped man's dorm room. There, in private, they would ask him to become a member of their secret society; the inductee had the choice of accepting or rejecting the offer of membership. During this process, it was publicly known who was being tapped for the coming year. Today, the selection process is not quite as formal, but is still public.[2] Formal tapping days used to exist at Berkeley, and still exist in a much more formal setting at Missouri. Honoraries[edit] Several campuses distinguish societies called "honoraries" from secret societies. An honorary is considered to operate in name only: membership is an honor given in recognition of some achievement, and such a society is distinct from a secret society. However, functionally, such organizations can operate identically to secret societies, and historically, most honoraries operated on a secret society basis. Phi Beta Kappa is the best-known such example, where it originally operated on a secret chapter basis, and it became the progenitor of all college fraternities, and at the same time, some time after its secrets were made public in the 1830s, Phi Beta Kappa continued on as an honorary. Virtually all the oldest honoraries were once clearly secret societies, and the extent to which they are distinct is now ambiguous at best. History[edit] The first collegiate secret society recorded in North America is that of the F.H.C. Society, established on November 11, 1750 at The College of William & Mary. Though the letters stand for a Latin phrase, the society is informally and publicly referred to as the "Flat Hat Club"; its most prominent members included St. George Tucker, Thomas Jefferson, and George Wythe. The second-oldest Latin-letter society, the P.D.A. Society ("Please Don't Ask"), in 1776 refused entry to John Heath, then a student at the College; rebuffed, he in the same year established the first Greek-letter secret society at the College, the Phi Beta Kappa, modelling it on the two older fraternities.[3] The Phi Beta Kappa society had a rudimentary initiation and maintained an uncertain level of secrecy. Those secrets were exposed in the mid-1830s by students at Harvard University acting under the patronage of John Quincy Adams. Since the 1840s, Phi Beta Kappa has operated openly as an academic honor society. The spread of Phi Beta Kappa to different colleges and universities likely sparked the creation of such competing societies as Chi Phi (1824), Kappa Alpha Society (1825), and Sigma Phi Society (1827); many continue today as American collegiate social fraternities (and, later, sororities). Sigma Phi remains the oldest continuously operating national collegiate secret society; it may have declined the founding members of Skull & Bones a charter prior to their forming their own society. A second line of development took place at Yale College, with the creation of Chi Delta Theta (1821) and Skull and Bones (1832): antecedents of what would become known as class societies. Skull & Bones aroused competition on campus, bringing forth Scroll & Key (1841), and later Wolf's Head (1883), among students in the senior class. But the prestige of the senior societies was able to keep the very influential fraternities Alpha Delta Phi and Psi Upsilon from ever becoming full four-year institutions at Yale. They remained junior class societies there. There were sophomore and freshman societies at Yale as well. A stable system of eight class societies (two competing chains of four class societies each) was in place by the late 1840s. Delta Kappa Epsilon is actually a highly successful junior class society, founded at Yale in 1844. None of the 51 chapters the parent chapter spawned operates as a junior society, but DKE did come from the class society system. Likewise, Alpha Sigma Phi started out as a Yale sophomore society and now has 68 chapters (although, again, none of Alpha Sigma Phi's chapters have remained sophomore societies). The development of class societies spread from Yale to other campuses in the northeastern States. Seniors at neighboring Wesleyan established a senior society, Skull & Serpent (1865), and a second society, originally a chapter of Skull and Bones, but then independent as a sophomore society, Theta Nu Epsilon (1870), which began to drastically increase the number of campuses with class societies. William Raimond Baird noted in the 1905 edition of his Manual that, "In addition to the regular fraternities, there are in the Eastern colleges many societies which draw members from only one of the undergraduate classes, and which have only a few features of the general fraternity system."[4] From Wesleyan, the practice spread more widely across the Northeast, with full systems soon in place at Brown, Rutgers, and other institutions. Kappa Sigma Theta, Phi Theta Psi, Delta Beta Xi, Delta Sigma Phi,[5] were all sophomore societies at Yale, and the two large freshman societies of Delta Kappa and Kappa Sigma Epsilon lived until 1880.[6] Delta Kappa established chapters at Amherst, the University of North Carolina, Virginia, Mississippi, Dartmouth College, and Centre College. Kappa Sigma Epsilon had chapters at Amherst, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Dartmouth.[6] Other class societies existed at Brown, Harvard, Syracuse, Colgate, Cornell, and other Northeastern institutions. At universities such as Colgate University, these secret societies have evolved and morphed over the years. Theta Nu Epsilon spread to about 120 colleges and universities, but many of its chapters operated as three-year societies where operating as a class year society was inappropriate. It is from this class society historical base and the desire to emulate the best-known of all the class societies, Skull & Bones, that senior societies in particular began to spread nationally between 1900 and 1930. Junior, sophomore, and freshman class societies also are to be found at campuses across the country today. Individual institutions[edit] Colgate University[edit] See also: Societies at Colgate University Since being founded in 1819, Colgate University has had a rich tradition of student societies. Over the years, Colgate has had numerous secret societies with various degrees of secrecy. Although there have been many underground organizations on the Colgate campus, the first secret honor society on record is the Skull and Scroll society founded in 1908. Members of the Skull and Scroll wore white hats with a black skull and scroll added to them. The Skull and Scroll had a rich history of membership with important names in Colgate history such as Ellery Huntington, Melbourne Read, and Harold Whitnall.[7] A rival organization, The Gorgon's Head, was founded in 1912 and had members that wore black hats with a golden emblem. The Gorgon's Head chose people for traits such as character, distinguished service, and achievement.[7] These two organizations competed with each other until 1934 when they merged to create the Konosioni senior honor society.[7] Konosioni initially was tasked with enforcing rules, such as mandating that all freshmen have to wear green beanies, with the punishment of paddling. The 1970s saw a change in course for the society as it became focused on leadership and the community. Konosioni now leads torch-light processions for first-year students during convocation and for seniors during graduation.[7] The College of William & Mary[edit] Main article: Secret societies at the College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, was home to the first known secret collegiate society in the United States, the F.H.C. Society (founded in 1750). The initials of the society stand for a Latin phrase, likely "Fraternitas, Humanitas, et Cognitio" or "Fraternitas Humanitas Cognitioque" (two renderings of "brotherhood, humaneness, and knowledge"), but it has long been publicly nicknamed the "Flat Hat Club". William & Mary alumnus and third American president, Thomas Jefferson, was perhaps the most famous member of the F.H.C. Society.[8] Other notable members of the original society included Col. James Innes, St. George Tucker, and George Wythe.[9] Jefferson noted that, "When I was a student of Wm. & Mary college of this state, there existed a society called the F.H.C. society, confined to the number of six students only, of which I was a member, but it had no useful object, nor do I know whether it now exists."[10] The best opinion is that the society did not survive the British invasion of Virginia at the end of the American Revolution.[8] The society was revived in 1916 (at first, as the Flat Hat Club) and revived again in 1972.[11] William & Mary students John Heath and William Short (Class of 1779) founded the nation's first collegiate Greek-letter organization, Phi Beta Kappa, on December 5, 1776, as a secret literary and philosophical society. Additional chapters were established in 1780 and 1781 at Yale and Harvard.[12] With nearly 300 chapters across the country and no longer secret, Phi Beta Kappa has grown to become the nation's premier academic honor society.[13] Alumni John Marshall and Bushrod Washington were two of the earliest members of the society, elected in 1778 and 1780, respectively.[14] Although the pressures of the American Civil War forced several societies to disappear, many were revived during the 20th century. Some of the secret societies known to currently exist at the College are: The 7 Society, 13 Club, Alpha Club, Bishop James Madison Society, The Cord, Flat Hat Club, The Spades, W Society, and Wren Society.[8][15] Cornell University[edit] Quill and Dagger Tower on the Cornell campus Cornell University has a rich history of secret societies on campus. Andrew Dickson White, the first President of Cornell University and himself a Bonesman, is said to have encouraged the formation of a "secret society" on campus.[16] In the early years, the fraternities were called the "secret societies", but as the Greek system developed into a larger, more public entity, "secret society" began to refer only to the class societies, except for the Sigma Phi Society on campus. In the early twentieth century, Cornell students belonged to sophomore, junior, and senior societies, as well as honorary societies for particular fields of study. Liberalization of the 1960s spelled the end of these organizations as students rebelled against the establishment. The majority of the societies disappeared or became inactive in a very short time period, and today, the four organizations which operate on campus are: Sphinx Head (founded in 1890), Der Hexenkries (founded in 1892), Quill and Dagger (founded in 1893), and Order of Omega (founded in 1959).[17][18] Dartmouth College[edit] The tomb of the Sphinx secret society at Dartmouth College Main article: Dartmouth College student groups Dartmouth College's Office of Residential Life states that the earliest senior societies on campus date to 1783 and "continue to be a vibrant tradition within the campus community". Six of the eight senior societies keep their membership secret, while the other societies maintain secretive elements. According to the college, "approximately 25% of the senior class members are affiliated with a senior society."[19] The college's administration of the society system at Dartmouth focuses on keeping track of membership and tapping lists, and differs from that of Yale's, though there are historical parallels between the two colleges' societies.[20][21] Dickinson College[edit] The Raven's Claw is an all-male senior honorary society at Dickinson College. It was founded in 1896, making it the first society unique to Dickinson College. Membership is limited to seven senior men who are selected by the seven previous members. The new members are chosen based on a variety of factors, these include: campus leadership, a solid academic record, and athletic participation. New members are inducted in a "Tapping Ceremony" which is held on the "Old Stone Steps of Old West". The ceremony is traditionally conducted during commencement weekend. They are called "claws" or "white hats", denoting the white caps they wear around campus to signify unity and loyalty. While the members of the group are known, the majority of their actions and traditions are concealed. The group prides itself in serving the Dickinson College and Carlisle, Pennsylvania communities through discreet service activities. The group's alumni organization is also responsible for founding one of the college's largest scholarship funds and the McAndrews Fund for athletics. Founded in 2001, The Order of Scroll and Key is a senior honor society at Dickinson College which recognizes seven senior men each year. Every member is tapped at the end of their junior year on the basis of their dedication to the College and the surrounding Carlisle community. Their current membership includes fraternity presidents, community advisers, community service leaders, as well as many other individuals. Their alumni have gone on to be successful community leaders, businessmen, artists, etc. The Order of Scroll and Key works to benefit numerous area charities and philanthropies, and in recent years has supported Carlisle C.A.R.E.S., Safe Harbor, and Sadler Health Clinic, among others. As one of Dickinson's distinctive "hat" societies, members can always be recognized by the gray hats that they wear.[22][23] Wheel and Chain is Dickinson College's Senior Women's Honorary Society. Founded in 1924, members are elected in the spring of their junior year on the basis of participation in campus activities, service to the college and community, leadership skills and personal character. Membership is limited to ten senior women. New members are inducted in a "Tapping Ceremony" which is held on the "Old Stone Steps of Old West" in April. In May, each incoming Wheel and Chain class ceremoniously rings the bell in Denny Hall during Commencement ceremonies. Colloquially known as the "blue hats", members are known to the public; however, the society's activities remain secret.[22] Duke University[edit] Main article: Secret societies at Duke University Throughout its history, Duke University has hosted several secret societies. The Tombs is a now defunct society founded in 1903 whose members were known to tie bells around their ankles. Details regarding its purpose, selection of members and the importance of the bells are still unknown.[24] Two of the best-known societies were the Order of the Red Friars and the Order of the White Duchy. The Order of the Red Friars was founded in 1913 with an initial purpose to promote school spirit. Later, the group declared a change of mission to focus more on fostering loyalty to Duke University. The Order, as it was colloquially-known, was semi-secret. This is because the selection of new members, known as tapping, was held on the steps of the Duke Chapel in broad daylight. As the years went on, the rites of tapping became more elaborate; in the final and most traditional form of the rite, a red-hooded and robed figure publicly tapped new men into membership on the steps of the chapel. Some notable members of the Order were President Richard M. Nixon, William P. Few, and Rex Adams. The Order of the White Duchy was founded in May 1925 by the Order of the Red Friars. The Red Friars chose what they considered the seven outstanding female members of the Class of 1925 to organize a similar organization, although it was not to be a sister organization. From 1925 on, new members were tapped into the order by the seven members of the White Duchy from the previous year. Members were known by the white carnation they wore on specific days of the year. Throughout the 1960s, both societies faced charges of elitism and struggled to tap students at an increasingly hostile university. In 1968, the White Duchy disbanded and in 1971, the Order of the Red Friars was disbanded by alumni who determined that the group had outlived its usefulness.[25] However, rumors surrounding its continued, albeit modified, form exist today. Two current secret societies - the Trident Society and the Old Trinity Club - are both thought to have been founded in the wake of the disbanding of the Order of the Red Friars. The Old Trinity Club is rumored to have started when an Editor-in-Chief of the Duke Chronicle was passed up for membership and decided to create his own, rival society. The Old Trinity Club is the most visible society on campus today, as its members are seen walking around campus wearing black graduation gowns and sunglasses on certain days of the year. They follow a set pattern, holding their arms in symbols in the air and routinely stopping and shouting "Eruditio et Religio." A November 2007 edition of Rival Magazine quoted Associate Vice President for Student Affairs and Dean of Students, Sue Wasiolek T'r76, claiming that "the Old Trinity Club has died, or at least in terms of its original manifestation. The way it manifests today is very different than when it was at its finest." It is said that students do not take the society seriously, viewing it more as a social fraternity than a secret society. For years, rumors of a "TS" existing on campus as a continuation of the Order of the Red Friars' original mission. Only recently has it come to light that "TS" stands for "Trident Society". This society keeps the strictest silence about its membership and mission except for two instances when its existence came to be known. The first, in the November 2007 edition of the Rival Magazine, explained its ideas. According to a "cryptic letter sealed with wax", the society is "rooted in ideals that stretch back to the university's founding". The letter continued: "Our founders recognized that similar institutions existed at other top universities (Skull and Bones at Yale, The Sevens at UVA, Quill and Dagger at Cornell) and saw a void to fill at Duke". As such, its members are not well known on campus. They "do not join to gain fame" or recognition; that said, members of the society are or were Rhodes Scholars, commencement speakers, players for Coach Krzyzweski, Phi Beta Kappas, A.B. & B.N. Duke Scholars, and leaders of the most influential groups on campus. The secrecy around this group drove Samantha Lachman to investigate the society in 2013.[26] Her subsequent article, "Trasked with Secrecy", revealed many of the secrets of the group. She discovered the names of several prominent members, that the red roses & white carnations sometimes found at the base of the James B. Duke statue on West Campus are their calling card, and even that they have uninhibited access to the Duke University Chapel for their Initiation Rites.[27] Emory University[edit] Founded in 1836, Emory University is a prominent research institution in the city of Atlanta, GA. Emory has five secret societies, including the Paladin Society, D.V.S. Senior Honor Society, Ducemus, Speculum and The Order of Ammon. Furman University[edit] Founded in 1826 Furman University is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in South Carolina. Until 1992 the university was, to varying degrees affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention which banned social organizations of all kinds. This drove students seeking such groups underground. The most notable of these early secret societies was called "The Star and Lamp", however it is known today on more than 100 campuses as Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity. After being founded at The College of Charleston in 1904, Pi Kappa Phi operated "sub-rosa", or under the rose of secrecy, for much of the twentieth century so as to hide their activities from the university's Baptist administrators. During this time Sigma Alpha Epsilon and Tau Kappa Epsilon operated respectively as "The Centaur" and "The Knights Eternal" while a fourth organization, "The Robert E. Lee Fraternity" was concurrently active which would go on to merge with today's Kappa Alpha Order. For this reason, Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity's official flower is today, the rose, their sweetheart is called the rose and one of the group's most cherished songs is "The Rose Song". The rose and "sub-rosa" concept are present in the group's esoteric literature and rituals. Furthermore, the fraternity's chapter at Furman carries a unique flag which bears a red rose in the upper right-hand corner.[28] On campus today the only known active secret society is The Quaternion Club, although many are rumored to exist. Quaternion, which dates back to 1903, taps four juniors and four seniors each year in the late winter or early spring. The selection process is guarded but is thought to be controlled by current Quaternions currently in residence at the school. The initiation ritual and all group meetings take place in the "Old College", the original building in which James C. Furman taught the university's first courses in Greenville in 1851. It is also widely known that Quaternions are given lifetime access to this building upon initiation which also houses the controls for the 59 bell Burnside Carillon inside Furman's iconic bell tower. Famous Quaternions have included U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley, South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford, and Clement Haynsworth, a nominee for the U.S. Supreme Court.[29] There are also a number of strongly rumored secret societies with less documentation including The Magnolia Society, which has apparently formed within the past decade and taps men and women from all classes into something like an elitist supper club. Magnolians, as they are called, can be identified only on their way to or from a "happening" by the sweetgrass rose they wear on their breast. The Black Swan or Paladin Brotherhood was a darker organization rumored to have operated on and off from the late 1940s to the mid 1980s, utilizing the unfinished attic of Judson dormitory for occult rituals. Florida State University[edit] The Burning Spear Society is a secret society at Florida State University, founded in 1993. Burning Spear was founded on July 14, 1993 by three students initially to promote Charlie Ward's Heisman campaign.[30] By August 1993, sixteen students joined together to charter this new organization, and within one year's time seven additional students would be initiated into membership. Though not much is publicly available on the dealings of the organization, members often cite the provision of political, professional and financial support of FSU community members and efforts that strengthen the university's traditions as two of their most basic ambitions. George Washington University[edit] Founded in 1821, George Washington University is located in the heart of the nation's capital. In 1997, University President Stephen Joel Trachtenberg brought together student leaders from all parts of the university to support fellowship, make GW a better university, and behave in slightly frivolous ways. The secret society was named The Order of the Hippo, after a bronze statue of a hippo, also known as the River Horse (sculpture), displayed prominently in the center of campus.[31] The Order takes its oath from a plaque located on the front of the hippo statue, which reads, "Art for wisdom, Science for joy, Politics for beauty, and a Hippo for hope."[31] The Order has a ritual book, which is passed down from year to year and the main aim of the group is to enact Random Acts of Kindness around GW's campus to create a better environment for all students. Georgetown University[edit] Georgetown’s leading secret society is the Society of Jesus founded as an all-male fraternity of would-be Catholic priests at the University of Paris (the Sorbonne) in 1534. In 1773, the Jesuits were suppressed by the Pope but in Maryland they stayed organized secretly and in 1789 the suppressed Jesuits helped staff Georgetown College for its founder, America's first Catholic bishop, Archbishop John Carroll; later to become Georgetown University. The Jesuits were long hostile to college fraternities and societies that tried to form at Georgetown like at other colleges in the 19th century because they could not control them, but the hostility had waned by 1920. One century later, Georgetown has several fraternities and sororities, independent of the University, and a few all-male, all-female and co-ed secret societies.[32] Of these, the most prominent is the Second Stewards Society, the uninterrupted successor to The Stewards Society. Despite debunked rumors that they had been founded by the Jesuits,[33] the Stewards were first organized by students in the early 1800’s as a component of The Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The latter existed until 1970.[34] In the late 1800’s, alumnus John Agar (C'1876) organized Steward alumni to buttress the Jesuits’ often short-sighted and incompetent administration. Soon after Georgetown’s iconic Healy Building was completed, its Alumni Association was founded, and an independent Board of Regents took on fund raising.[35] The Stewards dissolved in the late 1990’s due to an internecine disagreement regarding the pursuit of its original mission, in effect ousting a small minority. The Second Stewards Society organized within one hour under the Stewards organizing laws and traditions, committed to maintaining a focus on service. A third Stewards Society formed in 1997 claiming to be the original,[36] however in 2019 it went co-ed. The Stewards are known to tap student leaders for their service, advocacy, and school spirit. The Stewards work mostly anonymously aiming to foster Georgetown’s traditions. Many student clubs at Georgetown were either founded or revived by Stewards, and public tax records show that they put their significant wealth into an expansive charitable program to benefit the university, and especially student efforts. While not much is known about the secret society, a Georgetown student newspaper published details of their existence in 1988 which sparked outcry from students who protested that the society promoted elitism and exclusivity.[37] It was believed that the Stewards had disbanded as a result, but news stories throughout the past three decades show that the Stewards are still very active and at the forefront of the Georgetown community.[38] A major scandal erupted in campus politics[39] during the Georgetown University Student Association executive elections in February 2013, when two of the leading candidates (along with some of their top campaign staffers) were outed as Stewards. Each was from one of the two Steward societies.[40][41][42] The school newspaper, The Hoya, maintained its support of the candidate revealed to be a Steward.[43] Similarly, four of the eight presidential and vice presidential candidates in the 2014 election were also revealed to be Stewards, though the issue was not as contentious as it had been the year before.[44] Ending a generation of silence, the Stewards published an op-ed in 2020 that confirmed their alumni reach and gave a glimpse into their mysterious culture and service purpose.[45] Notably, they demur on being considered a secret society, preferring to be considered a “private association.” Prominent contemporary Stewards include William Peter Blatty, the Oscar award-winning author and producer of The Exorcist, and Richard McCooey, the founder of The Tombs rathskeller and 1789 Restaurant in Georgetown, D.C. Georgia Institute of Technology[edit] Main article: ANAK Society The Anak Society is the oldest known secret society and honor society at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1908, Anak's purpose is "to honor outstanding juniors and seniors who have shown both exemplary leadership and a true love for Georgia Tech".[46] The society's name refers to Anak, a biblical figure said to be the forefather of a race of giants. Although not founded as a secret society, Anak has kept its activities and membership rosters confidential since 1961. Membership is made public upon a student's graduation or a faculty member's retirement. The Anak Society's membership comprises at least 1,100 Georgia Tech graduates, faculty members, and honorary members. The society has been influential in the history of Georgia Tech. Anak played a major role in establishing several of Georgia Tech's most active student organizations – including Georgia Tech's yearbook, the Blueprint; Georgia Tech's student newspaper, The Technique,[47] and Georgia Tech's Student Government Association – as well as several lasting Georgia Tech traditions. The society also claims involvement in a number of civil rights projects, most notably in peacefully integrating Georgia Tech's first African-American students in 1961, preventing the Ku Klux Klan from setting up a student chapter at Georgia Tech. Harvard University[edit] Main article: Final club Owl Club Clubhouse in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard does not have secret societies in the usual sense, though it does have final clubs, fraternities, sororities, and a variety of other secret or semi-secret organizations. Final clubs are secretive about their election procedures, and they have secret initiations and meetings. However, there is little secrecy about who is a member. They are larger than secret societies generally are (approximately forty students per club). Guests are admitted under restrictions. However the Porcellian, AD, Fox and Fly clubs are somewhat stricter than the others, having rules against admitting non-members to most areas of their buildings. "Punch Season" and the "Final Dinner" is analogous to "Tap" at Yale. As of the Fall of 2015, one of the all-male final clubs has gone co-ed (the Spee Club). The seven remaining all-male clubs are in the process of going co-ed or are fighting pressures to do so. Final clubs at Harvard include The Porcellian Club (1791), originally called The Argonauts; The Delphic Club (1900); The Fly Club, (1836), a successor of Alpha Delta Phi; The Phoenix - S K Club (1897); The Owl Club, originally called Phi Delta Psi, (1896); and The Fox Club (1898). Co-ed clubs include The Spee Club, The Aleph (formerly Alpha Epsilon Pi) (2001), and The K.S (formerly Kappa Sigma) (1905). There are also five female clubs: The Bee Club (1991), The Isis Club (2000), The Sablière Society (2002), The Pleiades Society (2002), and La Vie Club (2008). Harvard also has three fraternities, Sigma Chi (1992), Sigma Alpha Epsilon (1893), and Delta Kappa Epsilon (currently a colony), and four sororities: Delta Gamma (1994), Kappa Kappa Gamma (2003), Kappa Alpha Theta (1993), and Alpha Phi (2013). These organizations are semi-secret in nature, have secret initiation processes and meetings but a more transparent process for gaining membership. All four sororities and the Sigma Chi fraternity also have rules against admitting non-members to many parts of their buildings. Another all-male social group is The Oak Club (2005), a successor of Delta Upsilon (1890) and later The D.U. "Duck" Club (1940), which holds events but does not own property in Harvard Square. There are also several final clubs and fraternities which are now defunct, including Pi Eta Speakers, The D.U. "Duck" Club, Delta Upsilon, Pi Kappa Alpha, and The Iroquois. Approximately 10% of men and 5% of women are in final clubs. Approximately 7% of men and 15% of women are in Greek letter organizations. Additionally, an unknown number of students are in other secretive on-campus groups. Other secretive social groups include the Hasty Pudding Club, Harvard Lampoon, Harvard Advocate, the Signet Society, and The Seneca. Finally, Harvard Lodge is a university Masonic lodge, founded in 1922 by Harvard Law School Dean/Professor Roscoe Pound, members of the Harvard Square & Compass Club, and members of the Harvard Masonic Club (which included Theodore Roosevelt). It is the oldest academic lodge in North America, its membership is restricted to males with a Harvard affiliation, and it operates in the building of Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, overlooking Boston Common. James Madison University[edit] Although the members remain reticent, James Madison University has only one known secret society. This society is named IN8 (pronounced /ɪˈneɪt/). The name references the college's founding in 1908 and the emblem of the organization consists of an infinity sign with an ‘I’ and ‘N’ embedded within the curve. Most notably, IN8 is known for their laud of 8 students per semester who have outstanding college careers and fulfill the organization's 8 supposed core values: Loyalty, Benevolence, Service, Justice, Integrity, Intellect, Character, and Spirit.[48] However, this is not their only known function, IN8 also provides philanthropic gifts to the University. The sundial located by the Quad, which is a famous landmark for many of the students, was donated by the group. IN8 hosts a website bearing their emblem which states “The IN8 Foundation is a benevolent charitable organization supporting the James Madison University community.” The IN8 Foundation was mentioned in The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2009. Writing on student involvement at James Madison University, Insider Guides states that IN8 is “Not necessarily the most popular but one of the most famed among these [student groups] is IN8, JMU’s secret society. Every year, it gives out eight letters to students and faculty who have significantly impacted their society to let them know that their work does not go unnoticed. In addition, in 2003, they donated a human sundial, a spot in the middle of campus where a person stands on a particular month’s mark and casts a shadow on plaques six or seven feet away that designate the time.”[49] Longwood University[edit] Secret societies have also long been part of Virginia's third-oldest public institution, which began in 1839 as an all-female seminary. One of the first of its kind, Longwood has undergone multiple changes in name and became co-educational in 1967 and transitioned from its previous name, Longwood College, to its final name, Longwood University, in 2002. Longwood currently has three secret societies, the oldest of which is CHI, founded on October 15, 1900 by members from three of Longwood's four sorority Alpha chapters-- Kappa Delta, Zeta Tau Alpha, and Sigma Sigma Sigma. The society was originally called the "Society of Societies" whose original intentions were to hold students accountable and enrich the lives of their peers and professors by calling out bad behavior, taking hooded walks called "CHI Walks" and hosting a bon-fire at the end of each academic year called "CHI burning" where senior members would reveal themselves to campus. Today, CHI represents something very different, and works on behalf of the college to represent Longwood spirit—the blue and white spirit. Members make their presence known through leaving small "droppings" or tokens around campus, writing letters to Longwood students, faculty, and staff which celebrate their achievements, and the members of CHI "commend" members during their annual "CHI Burning" which remains to this day. The mark of the society can be found on the sidewalks of the campus, where their symbol (a simple geometric version of Ruffner Hall) is painted in blue. Students, faculty, and staff do not step on these symbols as a means of paying respect to the society, the Longwood spirit, and the preservation of said spirit. The physical presence of CHI can also be found on campus because the society has donates generously to many campus fundraising campaigns, and donated CHI Fountain, located at the center of campus, which along its top stone, reads the public motto of the society. The third-oldest and second-longest consistently operating secret society at Longwood is Princeps, which was founded in 1992 on the premise of promoting citizen leadership and academic excellence. The society is represented by the number seven, with a seven-point crown above the number, most commonly in black. The societies colors are red, gold, and black, and they often commend members of the community with letters, tokens of achievement, and other gifts. Princeps, meaning "leader" in Latin, also awards paper cutout versions of their symbol, the seven, to students who achieve both Dean's List and President's List. Those who achieve Dean's List receive a black seven and those who achieve President's List receive a red seven. Princeps also recognizes students with wooden sevens, and the senior members of the society reveal themselves on graduation morning on the front steps of Lancaster Hall, home to the President's Office, at 7:07am, where they appear from within the crowd or from the building wearing a red sash with their symbol, the 7 and crown, stitched on the sash which drapes across their body. Membership selection for this society, just like CHI, remains a secret. Princeps has no known ties to the University of Virginia's 7 Society.[citation needed] New York University (NYU)[edit] Several secret societies exist at New York University, including Red Dragon Society, which only takes both "distinguished" male and female seniors from the College of Arts and Science, Knights of the Lamp, which only takes seniors from the Stern School of Business, and the Philomathean Society (which operated from 1832 to 1888), Eucleian Society (from 1832 to the 1940s), and Andiron Club.[50] Only Red Dragon Society and Knights of the Lamp still exist, though there have been attempts to revive the other societies at the university among recent classes and incoming undergraduate classes. Edgar Allan Poe was a frequent speaker at the Philomathean Society and the Eucleian Society, and lived on the Square. In addition, NYU's first yearbook was formed by fraternities and "secret societies" at the university.[51] Norwich University[edit] Secret societies are banned in all military academies in the United States. Norwich University was the last military academy to outlaw secret societies, doing so in 1998. The stated reason for doing so was controversy regarding hazing and abuse of cadets. Prior to the ban Norwich was home to a handful of long standing secret societies such as the Old Crow Society, Night Riders, and Skull and Swords. Like the other military academies, Norwich does not allow fraternities, having been banned in 1962. However, Norwich has an Alpha chapter of the Theta Chi Society now known as Theta Chi Fraternity on the basis that it is not a traditional fraternity, but admits those in pursuit of engineering degrees and thus an order to honor academic accomplishments akin to Phi Theta Kappa.[52][53][54] Pennsylvania State University[edit] There are currently three well-known societies at Pennsylvania State University: Parmi Nous (1907), Lion's Paw (1908), and Skull and Bones (1912).[55] Penn State has seen a number of different honorary societies with varying levels of publicity and activity. In 1907, the first "hat" society, so-named because of such organizations' emblematic headwear, Druids, was formed; similar societies expanded and included dedicated groups for women (e.g. Chimes, Scrolls) and men (e.g. Blue Key, Androcles) based on class standing and extracurricular involvement.[56][57] These groups were temporarily governed by a "Hat Society Council" which was made up of representatives from each organization from 1948 to 1958.[58] Hat societies were involved in University life passing down traditions (called "freshmen customs") for first-year students, forming honor guards for football players as they went on to the field, and recognizing leaders, scholars, and athletes in the Penn State community.[59] The three remaining senior societies no longer operate as publicly but continue to serve the University in a variety of functions. Lion's Paw is closely associated with conservation efforts at Mount Nittany in State College, PA.[60] Princeton University[edit] Main article: Eating clubs (Princeton University) Colonial Club Princeton's eating clubs are not fraternities, nor are they secret societies by any standard measure, but they are often seen as being tenuously analogous. Additionally, Princeton has a number of genuine secret societies; perhaps the best-known is a chapter of St. Anthony Hall, otherwise known as Delta Psi, a co-ed literary society. While membership in the Princeton chapter of Delta Psi is public, the society is known to maintain a secret president, referred to as Number One, whose identity is known only to members for the duration of his or her office.[61][62] The 21 Club, an all-male drinking society, is also a notorious Princeton secret society.[63] Princeton also has a long tradition of underground societies. While secret society membership is relatively public at some schools, Princeton's historical secret society rolls are very secretive because of Woodrow Wilson's ban on clandestine organizations and his threat to expel secret fraternity members from Princeton. One such society is Phi (pronounced fē),[citation needed] a society dating to 1929 when members of the Whig society splintered off after the merger of the Whig and Cliosophic debating societies. Phi's membership is secretive and difficult to discern, because no more than ten active "Phis" exist at one time: Phis usually receive offers at the end of their third year. As an adaptation to Princeton's stringent anti-society rules, each active class does not meet the preceding class that selected it until the First of June (after their first Reunions and before graduation). 1.6... is the Golden Ratio, hence the name Phi. Another society is the exclusively female Foxtail Society, founded in 1974 soon after Princeton began admitting women in 1969. The society was founded in response to the lack of eating clubs open to women. While admittance numbers have changed over the years, the Foxtail selects anywhere from 10 to 15 women to become members at the end of their junior year. Rutgers University[edit] Cap and Skull (1900) Class of '19; Paul Robeson at far left. As eighth oldest of the colleges in the United States, Rutgers University has had several secret societies on campus. One of which, a likely hoax, claims to be established in 1834.[64] Students associated with these societies were allegedly involved in the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War in 1876.[65] At the turn of the 20th century, Rutgers had developed two full sets of class year societies based on the Yale model,[66] down to the freshman societies such as the Chain and Bones and Serpent and Coffin.[67] The senior class societies at Rutgers included the Brotherhood of the Golden Dagger (1898–1940), Casque and Dagger (1901), and Cap and Skull (1900). Cap and Skull was dissolved in the 1960s after complaints of elitism. In 1982 the name was revived for university-sanctioned senior-year honor society. University of California, Berkeley[edit] The residence of the Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House in Berkeley, California. The University of California, Berkeley is home to a small handful of secret societies. Skull & Keys, founded in 1892 by Frank Norris, is the earliest secret society at Berkeley and is composed of a select few members from certain fraternity chapters on campus. The second oldest is the Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House (popularly shortened to Thorsen), founded in 1912, which acts independent to all of Berkeley's fraternal traditions and regulations and has resided in the famous Thorsen House since 1942. The campus is also home to the Order of the Golden Bear, established in 1900, which discourages the term "secret society" despite operating with a secret membership. The order is composed of undergraduate and graduate students, alumni, faculty, and administrators with a commitment to the betterment of the university, although its significance and recognition is considerably smaller presently than it was in its earliest years. University of Chicago[edit] The University of Chicago has never had a substantial number of active secret societies; indeed, shortly after the university's founding, the faculty of the university released a resolution suggesting that the exclusionary structure of many such societies made them antithetical to the democratic spirit of the university.[68] Nevertheless, one notable exception - The Society of the Owl and Serpent, a secret honors society founded in 1896 - was active for over 70 years.[69] The Society voted to officially disband in 1968 as a sign of its "counterculture" values, electing to donate its office space to the student radio group WHPK and use its remaining funds for the purchase of an FM transmitter.[70] Notable alumni of the Society of the Owl and Serpent include former Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, who graduated from the university in 1941.[71] University of Cincinnati[edit] The University of Cincinnati hosts several secret societies, locally referred to as honoraries. The first such organization is Sigma Sigma, founded in 1898 which is open to upperclassmen men on the campus. Sigma Sigma is responsible for the Sigma Sigma commons on the UC campus, along with other donations to the campus. Cincinnatus (co-ed) was founded in 1917 with the Men of METRO founded in 1946. CWEST and Sigma Phi exist as the female counterparts to Men of METRO and Sigma Sigma, respectively. Many of the university's prominent alumni claim membership to one or many of these organizations. Each organization coordinates at least one annual event: Men of Metro and CWEST host an annual Talent Show, Cincinnatus a charitable run, Sigma Phi the Homecoming dance, and Sigma Sigma an annual carnival. University of Georgia[edit] The University of Georgia is home to a chapter of the Order of Omega, an honor society which selects the top 3% of Greek Fraternity students for membership.[72] A group unique to UGA is the men's secret society known as the Order of the Greek Horsemen which annually inducts five fraternity men, all leaders of the Greek Fraternity system. Likewise, the highest achievement a male can attain at the University is claimed by the Gridiron Secret Society. Palladia Secret Society was founded in the early 1960s as the highest honor a woman can attain at the University of Georgia. Palladia inducts approximately 12 women each fall and has an extensive network of alumni, including administrators at the University of Georgia and prominent female leaders across the state. The Panhellenic sororities also have a secret society known as Trust of the Pearl, which inducts five accomplished sorority women each spring. The Sphinx Club is the oldest honorary society at the University of Georgia, recognizing students, faculty, staff and alumni who have made significant contributions to the University, the State of Georgia and the nation. Membership to this organization is not secret; however, all business and happenings of the organization are. University of Miami[edit] Iron Arrow Honor Society Iron Arrow Honor Society, founded in 1926 in conjunction with the University of Miami's opening, is the highest honor attained at the University of Miami. Based on Seminole Indian tradition, Iron Arrow recognizes those individuals in the University of Miami community who exemplify the five qualities of Iron Arrow: Scholarship, Leadership, Character, Humility and Love of Alma Mater. University of Michigan[edit] The University of Michigan Ann Arbor hosts three secret societies: Order of Angell, Phoenix, and the Vulcan Senior Engineering Society. Order of Angell and Phoenix were once under the umbrella group "The Tower Society", the name referring to their location in the top of the Michigan Union tower. Michigauma (Order of Angell) was all-male while Adara (Phoenix) was all-female. Order of Angell, known as "Order", is an evolved version of a previous society Michigauma. It was inspired by the rituals and culture of the Native Americans of the United States. Since its creation in 1902 the group is credited with creating Dance Marathon, one of the largest charitable events at the University of Michigan and construction of the Michigan Union for which it was granted permanent space in the top floors of the tower which they refer to as the "tomb".[73][74] In 2007 the group changed its name to Order of Angell. Phoenix, (formerly known as Adara) holding to astrological roots, formed in the late 1970s by the women leaders on campus. In the early 1980s they joined the tower society and occupied the sixth floor of the tower just below Michigamua. Phoenix, alongside Order, is now co-ed. Vulcan Senior Engineering Society, known as "the Vulcans", occupied the fifth floor of the Union tower though were not formally a part of the tower society. They draw their heritage from the Roman god Vulcan. The group which used to do its tapping publicly is known for its long black robes and for its financial contributions of the University of Michigan College of Engineering. University of Missouri[edit] Alpha Theta of Theta Nu Epsilon in 1917 In 1895, the Alpha Theta Chapter of the Theta Nu Epsilon sophomore society was founded under the guidance of faculty member Luther DeFoe. DeFoe also served as a mentor to the founding members of the QEBH senior men's society, which was founded in 1898. Mystical Seven was founded in 1907 and has become the second best known society on campus. Some have suggested that Missouri's Mystical Seven was modeled after Virginia's Seven Society, which had been established just a couple years earlier. Other secret societies followed, including Society of the Hidden Eye for junior, senior men, LSV for senior women, Thadstek for freshman, sophomore men, Tomb and Key for freshman, sophomore men, and Kappa Kappa whose membership composition was unknown. During this period of rapid expansion of secret societies, a network of sub-rosa inter-fraternity organizations also established itself on campus with no purpose other than socializing and mischief making. This network, known commonly as the "Greek Underworld" included organizations such as Seven Equals, Kappa Beta Phi, Sigma Phi Sigma, Kappa Nu Theta, and Sigma Alpha Beta. QEBH at Tap Day 2006 It is currently home to at least six secret honor societies that still participate in an annual public Taies Day ceremony at the end of each spring semester. QEBH, Mystical Seven, LSV, Alpha Xi chapter of Omicron Delta Kappa, Friars chapter of Mortar Board, and Rollins Society each use the Tap Day ceremony at the conclusion of the year to reveal the members who were initiated over the past year. Missouri is one of few remaining institutions in which the local Omicron Delta Kappa and Mortar Board chapters carry out much of their work in secrecy. The Jefferson Society, which attempted to take part in Tap Day and was denied, claims to have been around since 1862. In addition to Tap Day activities, several of the societies maintain a public presence during some athletic events. QEBH is the caretaker of the Victory Bell, along with Nebraska's Society of Innocents, awarded to the winner of the Missouri–Nebraska Rivalry football game each year. The Friars Chapter of Mortar Board exchanges a gavel with Nebraska (The Black Masque Chapter of Mortar Board) at each MU-UNL football game, symbolizing the rivalry between the Universities. Mystical Seven and Oklahoma's Pe-et Society were likewise entrusted with the Peace Pipe trophy that was awarded to the winner of the biennial Missouri-Oklahoma football match. Omicron Delta Kappa previously served as caretaker of the Indian War Drum trophy awarded to the winner of the annual Border War football game between Missouri and Kansas.[75][76] University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill[edit] Hippol Castle, headquarters of the Order of Gimghoul The library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill contains the archives of the Order of Gimghoul, a secret society headquartered at the Gimghoul Castle.[77][78] The order was founded in 1889 by Robert Worth Bingham, Shepard Bryan, William W. Davies, Edward Wray Martin, and Andrew Henry Patterson, who were students at the time.[79] The society is open to male students (rising juniors and higher), and faculty members by invitation. The society centers itself around the legend of Peter Dromgoole, a student who mysteriously disappeared from the UNC campus in 1833.[80] The founders originally called themselves the Order of Dromgoole, but later changed it to the Order of Gimghoul to be, "in accord with midnight and graves and weirdness", according to the university's archives.[79] Tradition has it that the order upheld the "Dromgoole legend and the ideals of Arthurian knighthood and chivalry". From all accounts, the order is social in nature, and has no clandestine agenda. Membership is closed and information about the order is strictly confidential, as is access to archives which are less than 50 years old.[79] The Order of the Gorgon's Head, another secret society at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was founded in 1896 by Darius Eatman, Edward Kidder Graham, Ralph Henry Graves, Samuel Selden Lamb, Richard Henry Lewis, Jr., and Percy DePonceau Whitaker. Membership has always been limited to male members of the junior, senior, professional, and post-graduate classes along with male faculty members. Inductees may not be members of other societies. Officers include Princeps (chief officer), Quaestor, and Scriptor. The purpose of the Order is to promote friendship, good will, and social fellowship among its members. The Order of the Gorgon's Head was one of two "junior orders" established at the University in the 1890s. The two orders had written agreements that they would not attempt to recruit freshmen or sophomores. Each order had a lodge (the Gimghouls later built a castle), where members gathered for meetings and events. Each had secret rituals based on myths. Those of the Order of the Gorgon's Head centered on the myth of the Gorgons, three monstrous sisters prominent in ancient Greek and Roman lore. The University's library also contains the archives of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. The Societies were founded in 1795 by some of the first students to attend the university, and are the oldest public-school societies in the nation. While at first maintaining strict secrecy in their proceedings, the Societies' meetings are now generally open to the public; however, the Societies reserve the right at all times to call an "Executive Session", at which point all non-members are escorted from the chambers. All undergraduates may attempt to join one of the two societies by petitioning, but only a select few are admitted, upon mutual agreement between current Society members. Most recently, in 2011, the Daily Tar Heel reported the first of two donations to campus entities by a secret society named Infinity. In 2011, the society gifted $888.88 to the Eve Carson Scholarship fund, which honors the late Student Body President Eve Carson.[81] In 2012, the society gifted $888.88 to the Student Enrichment Fund, a student-created fund allowing students to apply for grants to attend off-campus events such as speeches, conferences or other academic or extracurricular opportunities.[82] The significance of the digit '8' comes from the symbol for infinity that resembles an eight on its side. University of Pennsylvania[edit] At UPenn, secret societies are smaller than their Greek counterparts, and tend to vary in degree of secrecy.[83][84] There are three senior honorary societies. The Sphinx Senior Society and the Friars Senior Society were both founded at the turn of the 20th century, while The Mortar Board Senior Society was founded in 1922. None of these societies was intended to be secret, in that their undergraduate and alumni membership were and continue to be publicly known, they share many of the characteristics of undergraduate secret societies of the time; they tap a diverse group of campus leaders to become members during their senior year, organize social and service activities throughout the year, and maintain an extensive network of successful and notable alumni. Alumni of Friars, for example, include Harold Ford Jr. and Ed Rendell; the Sphinx alumni roster boasts Richard A. Clarke and John Legend. In addition, there are several other groups called "secret societies". These groups generally denote a social club that is independent of any official organization. For this reason, the society is not regulated by the university and is not accountable to a national organization. University of Southern California[edit] The University of Southern California is home to the Skull and Dagger Society.[85] Founded in 1913, Skull and Dagger is USC's oldest honor society.[86] The Society inducts Trojans who have demonstrated extraordinary leadership on campus or who have brought fame and notoriety to the University. In the early 20th century, the Society published its members names and accomplishments, however in recent years has kept its members' identities secret. Members often include student body presidents, Daily Trojan editors in chief, All-American athletes, football team captains and inter-fraternity council presidents.[87] Little is known about the rituals and practices of the society aside from once a year when the society pranks the school, drops a banner from the Student Union Building, and runs through campus wearing odd hats and tailcoats.[88] Recently,[when?] the society has been criticized for its annual prank practice, with opponents saying the pranks "damage the trustworthiness and credibility of respected campus services".[89] Although originally an all-male society, Skull and Dagger now admits women. Skull and Dagger has been known to make gifts to the University. In 1994, the Society donated "The Wall of Scholars" to honor students who have won national and international fellowships, as well as recipients of USC awards.[90] In 2011, the Society embarked to restore the University's class marker tradition and has been donating class markers ever since.[91] Skull and Dagger has additionally endowed two scholarships, which are awarded annually to students "who have demonstrated significant campus and/or community leadership".[86] University of Texas[edit] The University of Texas at Austin is home to the Friar Society. The Friar Society was founded in 1911 by Curtice Rosser and Marion Levy. Eight members were initially selected in the charter group. Originally, four men were chosen from the junior and senior classes every year on the basis of a significant contribution to The University of Texas. The Friar Society recognizes students who have made a significant contribution to The University of Texas. In 1936, the Friars decided to start taking larger classes to accommodate the growing size of the university. Women were first admitted to the Friar Society on March 25, 1973. In 1982, the Friars decided to create a teaching fellowship in honor of the upcoming centennial celebration for The University of Texas. Friar alumni raised $100,000 for this purpose, and this amount was matched by the Board of Regents to create an endowment. The Friar Centennial Teaching Fellowship is an annual award given to a UT professor who has demonstrated excellence at the undergraduate teaching level. With a prize of $25,000, the award is the largest monetary award annually given to a UT professor. The University of Texas at Austin is also home to the Tejas Club, an all-male secret society founded in 1925 that is one of the oldest student organizations on the campus. The three pillars of Tejas are scholarship, leadership, and friendship, representing a desire to attract and mold male student leaders on campus. Prominent members of the Tejas Club include former U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, CarMax founder Austin Ligon, and numerous Austin-area leaders. The membership process is secretive and closed to the public. University of South Carolina[edit] The Clariosophic Society, also known as ΜΣΦ (Mu Sigma Phi), is a literary society founded in 1806 at the University of South Carolina, then known as South Carolina College, as a result of the splitting in two of the Philomathic Society, which had been formed within weeks of the opening of the college in 1805 and included virtually all students. At what was called the Synapian Convention held in February, 1806, the members of Philomathic voted to split into two separate societies, one of which became known as Clariosophic, while the other society became known as Euphradian. Two blood brothers picked the members for the new groups in a manner similar to choosing up sides for an impromptu baseball game. John Goodwin became the first president of Clariosophic. Other early presidents include Stephen Elliott, Hugh S. Legaré. George McDuffie and Richard I. Manning. The Society was reactivated in 2013 and became co-ed. The membership process and society roster are secretive and closed to the public. Individuals in the Clariosophic Society can be identified by a key insignia on their diploma. University of Virginia[edit] Main article: Secret societies at the University of Virginia North Steps of the Rotunda, with Z Society logo Secret societies have been a part of University of Virginia student life since the founding of the Eli Banana society in 1878.[92] Early secret societies, such as Eli Banana and T.I.L.K.A., had secret initiations but public membership; some, such as the Hot Feet, now the IMP Society, were very public, incurring the wrath of the administration for public reveals.[93] The first truly "secret society" was the Seven Society, founded circa 1905.[94] Two decades before, there had been a chapter of the Mystical 7 society at Virginia, which may have been an inspiration. Nothing is known about the Seven Society except for their philanthropy to the University; members are revealed at their death. A few other societies that flourished around the turn of the 20th century, such as the Z Society (formerly Zeta), who were founded in 1892,[95] the IMP Society, reformulated in 1913 after the Hot Feet were banned in 1908, and Eli Banana, are still active at the University today. The Thirteen Society was founded February 13, 1889. After an unknown period of inactivity they reemerged in 2004. Currently The Thirteen Society operates as a mainly honorary society for those who demonstrate "unselfish service to the University and excellence in their respective fields of activity".[96] New societies have periodically appeared at the University during the 20th century. The most notable are the P.U.M.P.K.I.N. Society, a secret group that rewards contributions to the University and which was founded prior to 1970;[97][98] and the Society of the Purple Shadows, founded 1963, who are only seen in public in purple robes and hoods and who seek to "safeguard vigilantly the University traditions".[99][100] The A.N.G.E.L.S. Society started sometime in the late 1900s is known to place white roses and letters on doors of those mourning, needing encouragement, or showing "kind behavior" to others. They are known to promote a stronger community of kindness throughout the University, completing many acts of service for students and faculty. Many of the secret societies listed contribute to the University either financially or through awards or some other form of recognition of excellence at the University. Virginia Military Institute[edit] The military academies have often been hostile to fraternities and secret societies. Final admission to the VMI cadet corps is contingent on three factors: 1.) A cadet agrees to abide by the Honor Code. 2.) A cadet will not marry while a member of the Corps in pursuit of a degree. 3.) A cadet will never join any secret society. Should a cadet found to be in violation of any of those three, he is to be drummed out of the VMI cadet corps. Washington and Lee University[edit] Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia is known for two secret societies, the Sigma Society and the Cadaver Society. Founded in 1880, the Sigma Society is one of Washington and Lee's "oldest, continuous social organizations".[101][102][103] While membership information is not necessarily anonymous, the group's purpose and inner workings remain a secret. The group has long had a connection to President George Washington, though the extent of that relationship is unknown to the public at large.[102][104] Similarly, the acronym P.A.M.O.L.A. R.Y.E. - which can seen inscribed on buildings and in classrooms throughout the Lexington area - also bears an unknown significance to the group. The group has largely gone underground since undergoing a public spat with the University in 1994 when University officials paid the Sigmas $15,000 after it tore down the Sigma cabin. As noted by Chief Justice William Rehnquist, Associate Justice to the Supreme Court Lewis Powell, Jr. is one of the group's most prominent members.[105] The membership and organizational structure of the Cadaver Society are largely unknown. Cadaver has been in continuous operation since its founding in 1957. The Cadavers have a bridge that bears their name, connecting the main campus to Wilson Field, as well as their symbol in many prominent places throughout the campus. The society has been criticized for their secrecy and many of their activities which include running around dressed in all black and masks late at night as well as drawing their symbol all over campus.[106] They have been known to run through the Sorority houses, talking in high voices and attempting to wake everyone in the houses up. Washington University in St. Louis[edit] There are three known secret societies (known on campus as Honoraries because of the public nature of their members and purposes within the community) currently operating at Washington University in St. Louis: ThurtenE, Lock & Chain, and Chimes. ThurtenE was formed in 1904 as a secret society of junior men chosen for their leadership, character, and participation in campus activities. Not much is known about the founding of the group or its selection process from early years other than the fact that only the members themselves knew who belonged to ThurtenE and membership varied from 4 to 14, before finally settling on a consistent 13. Members made themselves known at the end of their senior year during graduation by wearing a small skull pin and having a number “13” listed next to their names in Washington University's yearbook "The Hatchet". In recent years, the 13 new members are revealed when pieces of paper listing the names and the honorary's symbol are posted around campus. ThurtenE found its purpose in 1935 when it was approached by the Chancellor to rescue the floundering student circus from the senior honorary, which had merged with another group.[107] Since 1935, Thurtene has held the Thurtene Carnival, which is the largest and oldest student-run Carnival in the nation. The society has been co-ed since 1991.[108][109] Lock & Chain was created in 1904 by six sophomore men. Since then, the honorary has expanded to 15 members from all different backgrounds, but it still stands by its founding principles—leadership, service, and tradition. Students are chosen during the Spring from the freshman class based on academic merit, extracurricular involvement, leadership capabilities and roles, and personal qualities through a highly selective application and interview process. New members can be seen spotted around campus wearing chains across their chests. Lock & Chain is an active honorary, sponsoring various events throughout the year. Lock & Chain is also dedicated to community engagement and philanthropic programming.[110] Chimes, founded in 1948 as a junior women's honorary, is a group of juniors who share common values of scholarship, leadership, and service. Each class works together for one year on programming for Wash U's campus, the internal Chapter, and the chosen partner philanthropy, with the freedom to follow their own path for the year. Each member has a name assigned to them that represents an aspect of what they bring to the Honorary (such as intrepidity or flair). Washington University's Chapter of Chimes Junior Honorary was founded in 1948, and has contributed to campus life at Washington University for over half a century. Their main campus program is Chimes Week, a Chimes tradition that explores a particular theme. Like ThurtenE, Chimes has been a co-ed society since 1991.[111][112] Yale University[edit] Main article: List of Yale University student organizations The term "secret society" at Yale University encompasses organizations with many shared but not identical characteristics. The oldest surviving undergraduate secret societies at Yale parallel various 19th-century fraternal organizations. In the traditional Yale system societies were organized by class year.[113] There were two, (then three), senior societies, three junior societies, two sophomore societies, and two freshman societies. All the societies were independent, all had their own traditions, and each class-year pair or trio shared common traits appropriate to their class year; the freshmen societies were rambunctious and owned little real property, the sophomore and junior ones were progressively more elaborate, (the sophomore ones regularly maintained live theater in their halls), and the senior ones were extremely small and elite, and with quite expensive property and celebrations. Each of the societies had a link to a society in the class year before it and after it; that is, members of one freshman society would all get elected to the same sophomore society year after year, and so on, so that there were two or three parallel sets of linked societies. From time to time, there would be a coup, and one society would break the pattern, forcing the other societies to likewise change election strategies, or cause the creation of a new society. Delta Kappa Epsilon, a junior society, was created in reaction to a botched election process to the junior class societies in 1844. This process held from the 1840s to the 1910s. This system kept Yale out of the more typical intercollegiate college fraternity system, although some regular college fraternities were created out of the Yale system. Yale-type class societies also extended across northeastern colleges. Society Years present Year[114] Linonian Society 1753–1872, 1945–present Senior & Graduate Brothers in Unity 1768–Present (Rumored) Four-Year Calliopean Society 1819-1853, 1950s–present Senior Skull & Bones 1833–present Senior Scroll & Key 1841–present Senior Berzelius 1848–present Senior Book and Snake 1863–present Senior Spade and Grave[115] 1864–present Senior St. Anthony Hall 1868–present Three-Year Wolf's Head 1883–present Senior The Pundits 1884–present Senior St. Elmo 1889–present Senior YSECS 1900s–present Four-Year Elihu 1903–present Senior Myth and Sword 1908–1965, 1990s–present Senior Aurelian Honor Society 1910–present Senior Torch Honor Society 1916–1960s, 1990s-present Senior Nathan Hale 1947–present Senior Manuscript Society 1952–present Senior Mace and Chain 1956-1960s, 1990s-present Senior Shabtai 1996–present Senior & Graduate This system has not survived the introduction of regular fraternities and other changes. The senior class societies continue to prosper today without any of the lower class societies. A similar system was introduced at Wesleyan University in nearby Middletown, Connecticut, but with a pair of societies in each class year and dual memberships between class societies and college fraternities, so that most class society members were also fraternity members. The older societies survived because of their endowments, real estate, and the vigor of their respective alumni organizations and their charitable Trusts.[116][117] In the past century, the size of Yale has allowed for a wider variety of student societies, including regular college fraternity chapters, and other models, so that it can be difficult to categorize the organizations. And there are societies like Sage and Chalice and St. Anthony Hall which cross ordinary categories. There are typical attributes of the Yale societies. They are often restricted by class year, especially the senior class. They usually have fifteen members per class year. They "tap" their members, mostly on the same "Tap Night", and a member is off-limits to recruitment by another secret society, (i.e. reciprocal exclusivity). The normal pattern now is that a group of secret societies places an advertisement in the Yale Daily News in early spring that informs students when Tap Night is taking place and when students should expect to receive formal offers (usually one week before official Tap Night). Tap Night is typically held on a Thursday in mid April; the most recently held Tap Night was April 10, 2014. During 1854–1956, "'Sheff'", the Sheffield Scientific School was the sciences and engineering college of Yale University, and it also had a fraternal culture that differed in some respects from the humanities campus.[118] Skull and Bones "tomb" at Yale University Many societies have owned meeting halls, with different accommodations. Following the example of Skull & Bones, the halls are often referred to as 'tombs'. A series of articles on Dartmouth and Yale secret-society architecture provides an overview of the buildings.[119] Societies that own tombs or halls are sometimes known as 'landed' societies. The three oldest landed societies are Skull and Bones (1832), Scroll and Key, (1841) and Wolf's Head, (1883). The surviving landed Sheffield societies are Berzelius (1848) and Book and Snake (1863), St. Elmo (1889), and the Aurelian Honor Society (1910). St. Anthony Hall (1867) calls itself a "final society".[120] Three newer societies that own property include Elihu (1903) – whose building is the oldest of the senior society buildings at Yale – Manuscript Society (1952), and Mace and Chain (1956). Yale's Buildings and Grounds Department lists the societies with halls in its online architectural database.[121] There may be any number of unknown or underground secret societies at Yale. Any group of students may self-constitute themselves as a society at any time. Certainly there have been many which did not last long enough to leave any significant records. Indeed, the Yale Rumpus has in recent years published names of students it believes are in various secret societies.[122] According to the Rumpus, numerous other societies (such as The Apostles, Cup and Crown, OCTA,[123] Phoenix ("Cage and Feather"), Nathan Hale, WIPS, L&C, Looking Glass, Spade and Grave, Boar and Rampant, Ox, ISO, Truth and Courage, Linonia, Llama and Cardigan, Red Mask, Crab and Bell, Ceres Athena, Gryphon, Fork and Knife, Ink and Needle, etc.) are either active or have been active recently. They typically meet in off-campus apartments, fraternity common rooms, classrooms, and other available spaces. Some groups have enough resources to rent a permanent meeting space. Given the extracurricular zeal and competition for society spots evident in the Yale student body culture, a definitive list of secret societies that exist on the campus (or on any campus) can change year by year. List of notable North American collegiate secret societies[edit] Name Institution Year Location Member limit NoZe Brotherhood Baylor University 1924 Texas N/A The Dragon Society[124] Binghamton University 1950 New York Upperclassmen Societas Domi Pacificae Brown University 1824 Rhode Island Seniors Seven Society, Order of the Crown & Dagger College of William and Mary 1905 Virginia Senior men Sigma Phi Society Union College 1827 New York N/A F.H.C. Society College of William and Mary 1750 Virginia Upperclassmen Bishop James Madison Society College of William and Mary 1812 Virginia N/A Wren Society College of William and Mary 1832 Virginia N/A Sphinx Head Cornell University 1890 New York Senior Quill and Dagger Cornell University 1893 New York Senior Sphinx[125] Dartmouth College 1886 New Hampshire Senior men Casque and Gauntlet[125][126] Dartmouth College 1887 New Hampshire Senior Tyger[125] Dartmouth College 1892 New Hampshire Senior Men Phrygian[125] Dartmouth College 1898 New Hampshire Senior Dragon Society[125] Dartmouth College 1898 New Hampshire Senior men Fire and Skoal[125] Dartmouth College 1975 New Hampshire Senior Abaris[125] Dartmouth College 1898 New Hampshire Senior Phoenix[125] Dartmouth College 1992 New Hampshire Senior women Gryphon[125] Dartmouth College 1960 New Hampshire Senior Cobra[125] Dartmouth College 1979 New Hampshire Senior women Raven's Claw Society Dickinson College 1896 Pennsylvania Senior men The Order of Ammon Emory University 2005 Georgia (U.S. state) Juniors and Seniors Paladin Society Emory University 1998 Georgia (U.S. state) Juniors and Seniors The Quaternion Club[127] Furman University 1903 South Carolina "Four Junior and Four Senior Men" Order of the Torch Florida International University 2003 Florida N/A Burning Spear Society Florida State University 1993 Florida Senior The Stewards[128][129][130] Georgetown University 1823 District of Columbia Not Freshmen Anak Society Georgia Institute of Technology 1908 Georgia (U.S. state) Junior and Senior A.D. Club Harvard University 1836 Massachusetts All male Delphic Club Harvard University 1898 Massachusetts All male Fly Club Harvard University 1836 Massachusetts All male Owl Club Harvard University 1896 Massachusetts All male Phoenix S.K. Club Harvard University 1902 Massachusetts All male Porcellian Club Harvard University 1791 Massachusetts All male Pithotomy Club[131] Johns Hopkins University 1896 Maryland Men CHI Longwood University 1900 Virginia Coeducational Princeps Longwood University 1992 Virginia Coeducational Philomathean Society New York University (NYU) 1832 New York All male Eucleian Society New York University (NYU) 1832 New York All male Red Dragon Society New York University (NYU) 1898 New York Senior coeducational Knights of the Lamp New York University (NYU) 1914 New York Senior Business School Andiron Club New York University (NYU) 1907 New York All male Mufti Pomona College 1940 California N/A Iron Key[132] Purdue University 1910 Indiana Senior Cap and Skull Rutgers University 1900 New Jersey Senior Medusa[133] Trinity College 1892 Connecticut N/A Myskania[134] University at Albany 1917 New York N/A The Machine University of Alabama 1914 Alabama Fraternity & sorority leaders Jasons Senior Men's Honorary[135] University of Alabama 1914 Alabama Senior Thoth[136] University of British Columbia 1926 British Columbia N/A Order of the Golden Bear[137] University of California, Berkeley 1900 California Senior Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House University of California, Berkeley 1912 California Men Skull and Keys University of California, Berkeley 1892 California Men's Society Torch & Shield Society[138][139] University of California, Berkeley 1908 California Senior women Society of the Golden Rose[140] University of California, Berkeley 1942 California Junior and Senior women Gun Club[141] University of California, Berkeley 1912 California Law School Sigma Sigma[142] University of Cincinnati 1898 Ohio Upperclassmen men Cincinnatus Honorary Society[143] University of Cincinnati 1917 Ohio Coeducational Men of Metro[144] University of Cincinnati 1946 Ohio Men CWEST[145] University of Cincinnati 1979 Ohio Women Sigma Phi[146] University of Cincinnati 1996 Ohio Women Order of the Greek Horsemen University of Georgia 1955 Georgia (U.S. state) Fraternity men Gridiron Secret Society University of Georgia 1978 Georgia (U.S. state) N/A Ma-Wan-Da[147] University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign 1912 Illinois Senior The Senior Skull Honor Society[148] University of Maine 1906 Maine Senior Men Iron Arrow University of Miami 1926 Florida N/A Order of Angell University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1902 Michigan Senior QEBH University of Missouri 1897 Missouri Senior LSV Society[149] University of Missouri 1907 Missouri Senior women Mystical Seven University of Missouri 1907 Missouri Senior Society of Innocents University of Nebraska 1903 Nebraska Senior OBC University of North Carolina at Asheville 1960 North Carolina N/A Order of Gimghoul University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1889 North Carolina Senior Order of the Golden Fleece[150][151] University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1904 North Carolina Senior Order of the Grail-Valkyries[152] University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1920 North Carolina Senior Loyal Knights of Old Trusty[153] University of Oklahoma 1920 Oklahoma Engineering students Bisonhead[154] University at Buffalo, The State University of New York 1923 New York Senior Friars[155] University of Pennsylvania 1899 Pennsylvania Senior Sphinx Senior Society[156] University of Pennsylvania 1900 Pennsylvania Senior Mortar Board[157] University of Pennsylvania 1922 Pennsylvania Senior Lion's Paw The Pennsylvania State University 1908 Pennsylvania Senior Skull and Bones The Pennsylvania State University 1912 Pennsylvania Senior Parmi Nous The Pennsylvania State University 1907 Pennsylvania Senior Society of Cwens University of Pittsburgh 1922 Pennsylvania N/A Order of the Druids[158] University of Pittsburgh 1916 Pennsylvania N/A Scarabbean Senior Society[159] University of Tennessee 1915 Tennessee N/A Friar Society University of Texas at Austin 1911 Texas Upperclassmen & Graduate Tejas Club University of Texas at Austin 1925 Texas N/A Episkopon University of Trinity College 1858 Ontario N/A Eli Banana University of Virginia 1878 Virginia N/A T.I.L.K.A. University of Virginia 1889 Virginia N/A Z Society University of Virginia 1892 Virginia N/A IMP Society University of Virginia 1902 Virginia N/A Seven Society University of Virginia 1905 Virginia N/A Society of the Purple Shadows University of Virginia 1963 Virginia N/A P.U.M.P.K.I.N. Society University of Virginia 1967 Virginia N/A The Thirteen Society University of Virginia 1889 Virginia N/A Iron Cross Society[160] University of Wisconsin–Madison 1902 Wisconsin Junior and Senior Cadaver Society Washington and Lee University 1957 Virginia N/A Sigma Society Washington and Lee University 1880 Virginia N/A Thurtene Washington University in St. Louis 1904 Missouri 13 Juniors Mystical 7 Wesleyan University 1867 Connecticut Senior Theta Nu Epsilon Wesleyan University 1870 Connecticut Sophomore Skulls of Seven[161] Westminster College 1898 Missouri Senior Skull[162][163] Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1911 Massachusetts Senior Skull and Bones Yale University 1832 Connecticut Senior Scroll and Key Yale University 1842 Connecticut Senior Berzelius Yale University 1848 Connecticut Senior Linonian Society Yale University 1753 Connecticut Senior & Graduate Book and Snake Yale University 1863 Connecticut Senior Brothers in Unity Yale University 1768 Connecticut Four Year Wolf's Head Yale University 1883 Connecticut Senior St. Elmo Yale University 1899 Connecticut Senior L&C Yale University ? Connecticut Senior Elihu Yale University 1903 Connecticut Senior Aurelian Honor Society Yale University 1910 Connecticut Senior Torch Honor Society Yale University 1916 Connecticut Senior Desmos Yale University 1951 Connecticut Senior Manuscript Society Yale University 1952 Connecticut Senior Mace and Chain Yale University 1956 Connecticut Senior Myth and Sword Yale University 1903 Connecticut Senior Burning Spear Society Florida State University 1993 Florida N/A See also[edit] • High school secret societies • International Debutante Ball • Secret societies References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b Bagg, Lyman Hotchkiss (1871). Four Years at Yale. New Haven: Charles C. Chatfield & Co. pp. 87–105. 2. ^ Yale Herald article Archived May 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 3. ^ Flat Hat Club. 4. ^ William Raimond Baird (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptive analysis of the fraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with a detailed account of each fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 426. 5. ^ Wm. Raimond Baird (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptive analysis of the fraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with a detailed account of each fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 428. 6. ^ Jump up to:a b Wm. Raimond Baird (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. A descriptive analysis of the fraternity system in the Colleges of United States, with a detailed account of each fraternity. The Alcolm Company. p. 429. 7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d "Spring Scene 2013". Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 8. ^ Jump up to:a b c Milfeld, Becca (2004-11-04). "Shhh! The Secret Side to the College's Lesser Known Societies". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 9. ^ "F.H.C. Society", University Archives Subject File Collection ArchivedJanuary 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary 10. ^ Hastings, William T. (1965). Phi Beta Kappa as a Secret Society with its Relations to Freemasonry and Antimasonry Some Supplementary Documents. Richmond, Virginia: United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa. pp. 38–39. 11. ^ Flat Hat Club 12. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa: The First Fraternity". Sigma Chi/Brief History of Fraternities. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 13. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa Society – History". Phi Beta Kappa homepage. Retrieved 2008-07-09.[dead link] 14. ^ "Letters" (PDF). The Key Reporter. 69 (4): 13. Retrieved 2008-07-09.[dead link] 15. ^ Johnson, Chase (2008-04-08). "Peeking Into Closed Societies". The Flat Hat. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. 16. ^ "The Secret Life of A.D. White". The Cornell Daily Sun. 2007-02-28. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 17. ^ Bishop, Morris (1962). A History of Cornell. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 343. 18. ^ "Dear Uncle Ezra". 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 19. ^ "Senior Societies". Trustees of Dartmouth College. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 20. ^ Scott Meacham (1999). "Halls, Tombs, and Houses: Student Society Architecture at Dartmouth". Retrieved 2008-05-10. 21. ^ Secret societies at the College include Dragon Society, Sphinx (senior society) and Fire and Skoal. Gomstyn, Alice (2001-05-18). "Secret societies remain veiled in mystery". The Dartmouth. Retrieved 2007-02-14.[permanent dead link] 22. ^ Jump up to:a b "Dickinson College Office of Communications". Dickinson College. Archived from the original on 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2011-02-28. 23. ^ "The Order of Scroll and Key". Dickinson College. Retrieved 2011-02-28. 24. ^ "Duke Magazine | Duke". Archived from the original on 2016-05-04. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 25. ^ "PQDT Open". Archived from the original on 2016-09-15. 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Georgetown's Blue & Gray. 36. ^ "Other Fraternities". www.deltaphiepsilon.net. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 37. ^ "Stewards Uncovered, Will Dissolve". The Voice. 1988-02-08. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 38. ^ "Alumni Donation". Washington City Paper. 1999-03-05. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 39. ^ Shapira, Ian (2013-03-14). "Secret society is again at center of an uproar on Georgetown U. campus". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 40. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma; McDonald, Braden (22 February 2013). "Secret Societies Jolt End of GUSA Race". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 41. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma (20 February 2013). "One Day Later, Stewards Respond". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 42. ^ Hinchliffe, Emma (20 February 2013). "Ramadan 'Comes Clean' After Denying Secret Society Membership". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February2015. 43. ^ "Board Stands by Appelbaum and Cleary". 2013-02-20. Retrieved 2020-06-23. 44. ^ Gregory, Matt (21 February 2014). "4 Candidates Secret Society Members". The Hoya. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 45. ^ "VIEWPOINT: Speaking for the Second Stewards Society". 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-06-22. 46. ^ "The ANAK Society". The ANAK Society. Archived from the originalon 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 47. ^ Edwards, Pat (1997-04-18). "Ramblins". The Technique. Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 48. ^ "JMU Secret Society IN8 Recognizes Altruistic Students". 2017-11-08. 49. ^ The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2009: Students on Campus Tell You What You Really Want to Know, 35th Edition. 2008-06-24. ISBN 9780312366919. 50. ^ "Guide to the Records of the Andiron Club of New York City MC 19". dlib.nyu.edu. Retrieved 2020-04-10. 51. ^ "Special Collections Center | New York University Division of Libraries". library.nyu.edu. Retrieved 2020-04-11. 52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 53. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/id/122115[permanent dead link] 54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 55. ^ Tully, Jessica (29 April 2011). "Student leaders raise questions over secret societies' reach". The Daily Collegian. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 56. ^ "Honor Societies Select Only Outstanding Students". The Daily Collegian. 20 September 1964. 57. ^ This is Penn State: An Insider's Guide to the University Park Campus. University Park, PA: Penn State Press. 2006. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-271-02720-3. 58. ^ Kay, Leslie (30 April 1965). "Top Penn Staters Honored By University Hat Societies". The Daily Collegian. 59. ^ "Men's Hat Groups Initiate 150 Yearly". The Daily Collegian. 11 September 1955. 60. ^ Bronstein, Ben. "About Lion's Paw: Mount Nittany". Lion's Paw Alumni Association. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 61. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-09. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 62. ^ andruthsaid.net 63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 64. ^ Kate S. Carroll (2006-10-16). "The Cannon War". Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 65. ^ Stefanie Becker (2013-03-18). "4 secret societies you probably don't know about". The Week. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 66. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-21. Retrieved 2010-01-10. 67. ^ "Fight on Class Societies – Rutgers Follows Princeton's Lead Against Club System". The New York Times. 1917-01-20. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 68. ^ "Secret Societies of the University of Chicago". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 69. ^ "To The Members of the University of Chicago". The University of Chicago Magazine. 5 (9): 298. July 1913. 70. ^ Makos, Jeff (Dec 7, 1995). "WHPK: Still spinnin' after all these years". The University of Chicago Chronicle. 15 (7). Retrieved 5 May 2017. 71. ^ "Justice John Paul Stevens, AB'41, announces retirement from Supreme Court". UChicago News. The University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 72. ^ Greek Life Forms & Policies Archived February 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine 73. ^ "Michigamua Image Gallery". Retrieved 2008-05-09. 74. ^ "Michigamua Exposed". Retrieved 2008-05-09. 75. ^ "Maneater | Secret societies reveal new members on Tap Day". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 76. ^ http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2007/10/11/case-missing-peace-pipe/[permanent dead link] 77. ^ West, Elliot (2006-10-31). "Halloween: Secret Society In Chapel Hill Owns Gimghoul Castle". Raleigh Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 78. ^ "Gimghoul Castle". Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 79. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Inventory of the Order of Gimghoul Records, 1832-2006 (bulk 1940-1997)". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 80. ^ "The Legend of Gimghoul". Ghost Stories of North Carolina. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 81. ^ "Secret society donates to Eve Carson Scholarship". The Daily Tar Heel. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 82. ^ "Secret society donates to Student Enrichment Fund". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 83. ^ Oppenheim, Gabe (2006-08-11). "The Jekyll and Hyde of ZBT". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 84. ^ Ghiselli, Margherita (2003-01-14). "Mystique of secret societies no secret among college students". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 85. ^ Starr, Kevin (2002). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 330. ISBN 9780195168976. 86. ^ Jump up to:a bhttps://dornsife.usc.edu/assets/sites/1/docs/admission/CSS_2015/2015_Skull_and_Dagger_Cover.pdf[permanent dead link] 87. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 88. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-15. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 89. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-15. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 90. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-04. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 91. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 92. ^ Bruce, Philip Alexander (1921). History of the University of Virginia: The Lengthening Shadow of One Man. IV. New York: Macmillan. pp. 97–99, 338. 93. ^ Bruce, Philip Alexander (1922). History of the University of Virginia: The Lengthening Shadow of One Man. V. New York: Macmillan. p. 283. 94. ^ Dabney, Virginius (1981). Mr. Jefferson's University: A History. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0-8139-0904-2.[permanent dead link] 95. ^ Bruce, IV:100. 96. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 97. ^ "P.U.M.P.K.I.N.'s To Make Yearly Roll". Cavalier Daily. 1970-10-30. Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. 98. ^ Dabney, 502. 99. ^ Dabney, 501. 100. ^ Steer, Jay (1968-09-11). "Noted For Eccentricity, Mysteriousness: Societies Beneficial to University". Cavalier Daily. Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 101. ^ Sigma plaque located outside of the Science Library, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia 102. ^ Jump up to:a b "History of W&L Secret Clubs", Ring-tum Phi, 4 October 1966, p.2. 103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 104. ^ "Sigma Initiation Washington's Birthday", Ring-tum Phi, 2 March 1910, p. 4. 105. ^ Powell's inclusion in the Sigma Society is acknowledged by Chief Justice William Rehnquist: Rehnquist, William H "A tribute to Lewis F. 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Retrieved 2017-05-13. 113. ^ "Four Years at Yale", Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg, '69, (New Haven, Conn.: Charles Chatfield & Co.), 1871, pgs. 87–105. 114. ^ "In Focus | Yale University Library" (PDF). 115. ^ "Morehouse Trust Dinner". 2013-04-13. 116. ^ "Tombs and Taps: An inside look at Yale's Fraternities, Sororities and Societies". Light & Truth: The Yale Journal of Opinion and Investigative Reporting. 8 (1). 2001. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 117. ^ Francis-Wright, Tim (2001). "These are Charities? The Seamy Side of Yale's Most Exclusive Clubs". Bear Left!. 1. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 118. ^ Branch, Mark Alden (March 2001). "Yale's Lost Landmarks". Yale Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-02-27. 119. ^ Branch, Mark Alden (2001). "Yale's Lost Landmarks: Delta Kappa Epsilon "Tomb", 1861-1927". Yale Alumni Magazine. Archived from the originalon 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 120. ^ "An Irrepressible Urge to Join". Yale Alumni Magazine. 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Feb 23, 1908. 139. ^ Women at Cal, A Class of Their Own: The Bancroft Library (last updated October 19, 2011) 140. ^ Brownstein, Sandra. "Revival of the 'Society of the Golden Rose'?". 141. ^ Peter, Kessler (2005). "Eris Quod Sum, Ergo Bibamus". Boalt Hall Transcript. Archived from the original on 2006-05-15. 142. ^ [1] Retrieved 2019-04-05. 143. ^ Cincinnatus Honorary Society Nearly Naked Mile Website Archived2017-09-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 144. ^ Men of METRO directory listing at the University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 145. ^ [2]. Retrieved 2019-04-05. 146. ^ [3]. Retrieved 2019-04-05. 147. ^ "Ma-Wan-Da Home". Archived from the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 148. ^ "Senior Skull Honor Society". University of Maine Alumni Association. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 149. ^ "Honors Societies". University of Missouri–Columbia Department of Religious Studies. Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. 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Retrieved 2019-11-20. 161. ^ "Skulls of Seven Home". Student Life, Westminster College. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 162. ^ "The Skull (Home Page)". Retrieved 2008-05-30. 163. ^ "Virtual Tour: Skull Tomb". WPI Virtual Tour. Retrieved 2008-05-30. Bibliography[edit] • Robbins, Alexandra (2004). Pledged: The Secret Life of Sororities. New York, NY: Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8859-7. • Winks, Robin W. (1996). Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 2nd edition. ISBN 978-0-300-06524-4. External links[edit] • "How the Secret Societies Got That Way", Yale Alumni Magazine (September 2004) • "Halls, Tombs and Houses: Student Society Architecture at Dartmouth" • "Four Years at Yale" A late 19th-century contemporary account of fraternal societies at two Connecticut Universities: Yale & Wesleyan (courtesy of Google Books) • The Peter Dromgoole legend Categories: • Collegiate secret societies • Student societies in the United States • Lists of organizations based in North America Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Contribute • Help • Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools • What links here • Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Page information • Wikidata item • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF • Printable version Languages • Español • Esperanto Edit links • This page was last edited on 24 June 2020, at 17:57 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. PAM SHERMAN ACTRESS https://www.imdb.com/name/nm3262508/?ref_=ttfc_fc_cl_t29 Pamela Sherman Biography Mini Bio (1) Pamela Sherman is an actress, known for The Alphabet Killer (2008), Homicide: Life on the Street (1993) and Unsolved Mysteries (1987). See also Other Works | Publicity Listings | Official Sites View agent, publicist, legal and company contact details on IMDbPro Getting Started | Contributor Zone » Contribute to This Page Pamela Sherman Publicity It looks like we don't have any publicity for Pamela Sherman yet. Be the first to contribute! Just click the "Edit page" button at the bottom of the page or learn more in the publicity submission guide. YOUNG PRESIDENTS ASSOCIATION rom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Young Presidents' Organization Abbreviation YPO Formation 1950; 70 years ago[citation needed] Founder Ray Hickok Founded at Rochester, New York Purpose Networking, peer-to-peer learning and idea exchange among peer presidents, chairpersons, or CEO's Membership Over 29,000[citation needed] Subsidiaries Over 460 individual chapters[citation needed] YPO (formerly Young Presidents' Organization) is a global leadership community of chief executives with approximately 29,000 members in more than 130 countries, according to the organization's 2019 YPO international fact sheet. History[edit] YPO was founded in 1950 in Rochester, New York, by manufacturer Ray Hickok, who was 27 years old when he became the head of his family's Rochester-based Hickok Belt, a 300-employee company. The first meeting was held in 1950 at the Waldorf Astoria New York and was attended by Robert Wood Johnson III (Johnson & Johnson).[1] Hickok and a small group of young presidents in the area began meeting regularly to share and learn from each other. According to the organization, its founding principle is that of education and idea exchange among peers.[2] • The first non-U.S. chapter was created in 1956 in Ontario, Canada. • The first YPO University was held in Miami Beach, Florida. • YPO merged with its graduate organization, World Presidents Organization (WPO), in 2007. • The YPO Global Pulse survey launched in 2009, and is a quarterly economic confidence index that shares business insights from CEOs.[3][4] • In 2010, Jill Belconis became the first woman elected to serve as YPO-WPO international chairman.[5] • YPO formed an editorial partnership with CNBC in 2012.[6] • Elizabeth Zucker is the 2019-2020 chairman of the YPO Board of Directors. [7] Demographics[edit] As of 2019, there are more than 450 chapters worldwide and more than 28,000 members.[8][9] Membership requirements[edit] To qualify for membership, a person must have become, before age 45, the president or chairman and chief executive officer of a corporation of significance with a minimum revenue and minimum number of employees. The financial criteria differ for service companies and banks.[1] Candidates must be typically recommended by two members of a local chapter and approved by a membership committee of each local chapter.[1] Past and present notable members[edit] • Charles R. Schwab, Founder & CEO, Charles Schwab Corporation[10] • Peter Ueberroth, Chairman, 1984 L.A. Olympic Games, former Commissioner, Major League Baseball[11] • Bob Galvin, Founder & former CEO, Motorola[12] • Jim Balsille, Co-Founder & former Co-CEO, Research in Motion/Blackberry[13] • Scott Cook, Founder & former CEO, Intuit[citation needed] • Douglas Fairbanks Jr., founder of United Artists motion picture studio[10] • Christie Hefner, former CEO, Playboy Enterprises[14] • Ray Lee Hunt, Hunt Oil[10] • Robert Wood Johnson II, president of Johnson & Johnson[10] • Ronnie Lott, Pro Football Hall of Famer, Founder & Managing Director, HRJ Capital[citation needed] • Leonard Lauder, former CEO, Estee Lauder[10] • Heidi Zak, Founder and CEO, Third Love • Penny Pritzker, US Secretary of Commerce[12] • Muna AbuSulayman, Saudi businesswoman, activist and television personality • Jim Pattison, a Canadian business magnate, investor and philanthropist • Sheryl Sandberg, COO Facebook[15] • Doug Lebda, CEO Lending Tree Jonathan Zucker, CEO 1-Chinaman Co. Ltd. YPO EDGE[edit] YPO hosts its flagship leadership gathering called YPO EDGE each year in different city. YPO EDGE is YPO’s annual showcase of thought leadership and innovation, bringing together visionaries, talented leaders, subject matter experts and unique voices from around the world to engage and inspire all that attend this invitation-only event. Previous host cities include: • 2019 | Cape Town, South Africa[16] • 2018 | Singapore[17] Publications[edit] Pat McNees, YPO: The First 50 Years. (Orange Frazer Press, 1999). ISBN 978-1-882203-59-8 OCLC 1011912188 References[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Waters, Craig R. (September 1982). "The secret life of Young Presidents". inc.com. 2. ^ Hopkins, Mark (1 January 2013). Shortcut to Prosperity: 10 Entrepreneurial Habits and a Roadmap for an Exceptional Career. Greenleaf Book Group. p. 206. ISBN 9781608324316. 3. ^ U.S. CEO Expectations. CNBC. Retrieved 2013-12-22.[time needed] 4. ^ Russian Rates Cut Again. CNBC. Retrieved 2013-12-22.[time needed] 5. ^ "Jill Belconis". leanin.org. 2016-02-28. Retrieved 2013-12-22. 6. ^ "YPO & CNBC Enter Exclusive Editorial Partnership" (Press release). Cnbc.com. 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2013-12-22. 7. ^ "Leadership | YPO". YPO. ypo.org. Retrieved 29 February 2020. 8. ^ Slater, Sherry (May 11, 2019). "City native picked as chairman". The Journal Gazette. Retrieved June 24, 2019. 9. ^ "YPO Announces Six Global Impact Award Global Honorees". yahoo.com. 2020-01-29. 10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Waters, Craig R. (September 1, 1982). "The Secret Life Of Young Presidents". Inc. Retrieved November 6, 2015. 11. ^ "Speaker Bio: Peter Ueberroth - Washington Speakers Bureau". www.washingtonspeakers.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. 12. ^ Jump up to:a b "YPO/Chicago Chapter - About YPO". ypochicago.org. Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. 13. ^ "Alliance of Chief Executives" (PDF). www.allianceofceos.com.[page needed] 14. ^ "Speaker Bio: Christie Hefner - Washington Speakers Bureau". www.washingtonspeakers.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-14. 15. ^ "The Premier Leadership Organization of Chief Executives in the World". Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. 16. ^ "How Cape Town's YPO 2019 brings meaning to a 'Life of Re' for creative CEOs". July 2019. 17. ^ "Why YPO's EDGE Is Coming Back to Singapore". July 2018. External links[edit] • YPO Official Site Categories: • Non-profit organizations based in Texas • International non-profit organizations • Organizations established in 1950 Navigation menu • Not logged in • Talk • Contributions • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history Search • Main page • Contents • Current events • Random article • About Wikipedia • Contact us • Donate Contribute • Help • Community portal • Recent changes • Upload file Tools • What links here • Related changes • Special pages • Permanent link • Page information • Wikidata item • Cite this page Print/export • Download as PDF • Printable version Languages • മലയാളം Edit links • This page was last edited on 30 June 2020, at 14:19 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. This was the best I could do since Blogger is manipulating my blog 8/14/2020

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